Spiritual Baptist Liberation Day

The origins and early development of the Spiritual Shouter Baptist Religion in Trinidad and Tobago are not well known but the consensus is that the religion developed among the people of African descent during the Nineteenth Century.

It can be found throughout the Caribbean under various names but according to Gibbs de Peza (10), the name Spiritual Shouter Baptist is indigenous to Trinidad and Tobago. It is a unique religion, comprising elements of Protestant Christianity and African doctrines and rituals. It is also one of the few religions indigenous to Trinidad and Tobago.

The term Shouter was given to the Baptists because of their tendency to shout, clap and sing loudly during their religious services. It was a derogatory term imposed on them by mainstream society. During their fight to have the Shouters Prohibition Ordinance repealed, the Baptists decided to use the term Spiritual Baptists instead of Shouter Baptists, in an effort to gain respect for their religion.

There are four theories that place the roots of the Spiritual Shouter Baptist Religion in Africa, Britain, North America and St. Vincent.

The first theory suggests that certain practices of the Spiritual Shouter Baptist Faith can be traced directly to Africa – however this theory is not well documented. While researchers agree on Africa, there is some dispute as to where in Africa. Some religious practices of the Spiritual Shouter Baptist Faith have been identified as being similar to that of Peoples or former Kingdoms in West Africa – particularly the Dahomey People (now situated in Benin), the Kongo People (now in Republic of Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo and part of Angola) and the Yoruba People (now primarily in Nigeria, Benin, Ghana and Togo.

Another segment of the influx of new settlers in 1797 was a group of former American Slaves who had supported Britain during the American War of Independence. They were rewarded for their loyalty with their freedom and grants of land in South Trinidad. They formed “Company Villages” that were named after the military companies in which they had served, for example, “Fifth Company, Moruga” (Henry, 2003). These settlers brought their Baptist faith with them and influenced the development of the indigenous Spiritual Shouter Baptist Faith.

Viola Gopaul-Whittington (12) has stated another theory that suggests the roots of the Spiritual Shouter Baptists can be found in the migration of fundamental Protestants, known as “Shakers“, from St. Vincent to Trinidad during the early part of the twentieth century.

This explains the origins of the four Baptist groups in Trinidad and Tobago – the London Baptists, the Independent Baptists, the Fundamental Baptists and the Spiritual Shouter Baptists.

Although the origins of the Spiritual Shouter Baptist Faith in Trinidad and Tobago can be traced to foreign countries, it has evolved over time to become a unique, indigenous religion. It has managed to fuse the spontaneity and rhythms of Africa with the restrained, traditional tenets of Christianity to produce a religion that is vibrant, expressive and dynamic.

From 1917 to 1951 the Spiritual and Shouter Baptist faith was banned in Trinidad by the colonial government of the day. The legislation to enact this ban was called the Shouters Prohibition Ordinance and it was passed on 16 November 1917.

The reason given for the ordinance was that the Shouters made too much noise with their loud singing and bell ringing (Henry 32-35) and disturbed the peace.

During worship, participants danced, shouted, shook and fell to the ground in convulsions. Such behaviour was deemed unseemly by the more traditional and conservative elements in the society. Also, the established churches regarded such behaviour as heathen and barbaric.

Furthermore, they were concerned about the large number of people who were leaving the traditional churches to join the Spiritual Baptist faith. The police, who had been persecuting the Baptists for several years, also wanted them silenced.

Although not said openly, the real reason for the antagonism towards the Baptists was that many of their practices were of African origin. Things African were associated with the shame and degradation of slavery and a large part of the population of Trinidad did not want to be reminded of this. Hence the strong lobbying to have the religion banned.

In the end, the colonial government responded to the complaints of the taxpayers, landowners and police by passing the Shouters Prohibition Ordinance.

Those thirty-four years of prohibition were difficult for the Spiritual and Shouter Baptists. The ordinance forbid them from erecting or maintaining any “Shouter House” or from holding meetings. Estate managers and owners were required to report any meetings to the police, and the police were authorized to enter a building where a meeting was being held without a warrant. (See full-text of Ordinance).

Worshipers were arrested, beaten and jailed if they were caught practising their religion. They had to flee to the hills and forests to practise their religion. Even then, the police still pursued and brutalized them. Nevertheless the Spiritual and Shouter Baptists survived. During the 1920s and 1930s, the Baptists fought many court battles and tried to counteract the negative perceptions of their faith.

It was only when Tubal Uriah “Buzz” Butler emerged as a labour leader that attitudes towards the Baptists gradually began to change. Butler himself was a devoted Baptist and controversial figure. His public meetings were reminiscent of a Baptist prayer meeting. His prominence gave the religion some legitimacy although he too was jailed for his political and religious beliefs.

During the 1940s a new leader emerged to champion the Baptists’ cause. Grenadian-born Elton George Griffith started a campaign to have the Shouters Prohibition Ordinance repealed. Under his leadership the numerous independent Baptist Churches formed the West Indian Evangelical Spiritual Baptist Faith.

In 1940, as a united body, they presented a petition to the Legislative Council asking for the Ordinance to be repealed. It was not granted but a few years later Albert Gomes asked the Council to appoint a committee to look into a repeal of the 1917 Ordinance. A committee was formed but it took several years before it released its findings.Meanwhile Griffith and his followers continued to lobby members of the Legislative Council to support the repeal.

Finally, after much lobbying, the bill to repeal the ordinance was passed on 30 March 1951, as The Repeal of Shouters Prohibition Ordinance. The Spiritual Shouter Baptists were free to practise their Religion.

The year 1996 saw another victory for the Spiritual Shouter Baptists in their fight for recognition. The United National Congress (UNC) Government granted them an annual public holiday. This holiday is celebrated on the anniversary of The Repeal of Shouters Prohibition Ordinance, 30 March, and is called Baptist Liberation Day, in memory of the struggle for, and repeal of, the Shouters Prohibition Ordinance of 1917. In addition, the Baptists were granted twenty-five acres of land in Maloney to build churches, schools and a spiritual park.

The granting of an annual holiday has given the Spiritual/Shouter Baptist faith status and recognition in Trinidad and Tobago. Members no longer have to hide to practise their religion but can worship openly like other religious groups. Membership is growing. Today, the religion is practised not only in Trinidad and Tobago but also in other Caribbean islands, as well as other countries to which Caribbean people have migrated, such as the United States, Canada and the United Kingdom.

PREPARING THE CLAY

The first step entails obtaining and preparing the clay. Most times clay is obtained from areas such as Carlsen Field, Valencia, Tabaquite and Rio Claro. When clay is dug up it is the stored in a dry place. The clay is prepared by adding water to obtain a moistened, sticky texture. The clay is passed through a machine called a pug mill. Passing the clay through this machine improves the consistency and texture of the clay by compacting it. Traditionally this process was done manually. It was called Dancing the Clay.

DANCING THE CLAY

The clay is thrown on the ground and red sand is added to it. The men walk up and down on the clay, mixing the sand into it with their feet. This walking or dancing on the clay is done until the clay has a smooth, elastic consistency.

WEDGING THE CLAY

The clay is kneaded by hand on a board and rolled into a ball.

THROWING A POT

This is the term used for molding clay into pottery on the potter’s wheel. The clay is centered on the potter’s wheel, and the potter begins to work the clay vertically up and down with his hands. Some pots are made directly on the wheel and others are made in parts on the wheel and then assembled. 

DRYING

Pots are set aside to air dry. Some are placed on shelves, in the shade and others are placed in the sun.

CARVING

Designs are carved into pottery or etched into the surface of the pottery with any sharp or pointy material available. This is done when the clay is leather dry. After the designs are made on pottery the drying process continues.

BAKING

Even though pots are air dried they still need to be baked. Pots are baked/fired in an oven or kiln. There are two types of oven, the electric and traditional dirt oven. This process is crucial as it removes excess water from the pottery, and as a result hardens the clay. Baking also changes the colour of the clay.

BELIEFS

The Spiritual Baptists believe that their religion comes from John the Baptist and their name from the practice of immersing their practitioners in water as a means of baptizing them into the faith (Henry 36-39). Rituals are characterized by bell ringing, mourning, shouting and visits from the Holy Spirit.

The term “Spiritual” indicates that the Holy Spirit is actively involved in the lives of the believers and in their religious service. According to Gibbs de Peza (1999) Spiritual Baptists are defined by their belief in:

  • The guidance of the Holy Spirit
  • The indwelling of the Holy Spirit

Symbolism plays an important role in the Spiritual and Shouter Baptist faith. Pictures, engravings and flags may contain symbols representing justice, righteous living, deliverance, victory over death and the Holy Spirit.

The bell, sword, shepherd’s rod and flags play important parts in many of the rituals. Candles are also important and the colour of the candle is significant. For example, a white candle symbolizes purity, truth and righteousness.

PRACTICES
There are several practices that are important to the Baptists.

Baptism: Baptists believe that repentance and faith are essential, and that man must be born again of water and the Holy Spirit in accordance with the teachings of the Bible. Candidates are given instruction over a period of time to prepare them for Baptism. This preparation ends in a service of praise and rejoicing, followed by the candidate’s acceptance of Jesus Christ, by immersing in living water, such as a stream, river or the sea.

Mourning: The mourning period can last for three to seven or more days. According to Gibbs de Peza, “Mourning is characterized by the denial to one’s self of the freedom to move about, to speak, to eat, drink, bathe or any other comforts, and the acceptance of the naked earth for a bed, a stone for a pillow” (1999, 64). In addition, the church member prays, fasts and meditates day and night. During the mourning period, the member receives spiritual instruction through visions and dreams. Mourning is considered important for developing the soul, strengthening the spirit and achieving spiritual knowledge, wisdom and understanding.

Pilgrimages: These are visits from one church to another in a different district. During the journey there is much singing and praying.

Commemoration of the Dead: The Spiritual Shouter Baptists believe that the death of a loved one who lived a life of righteousness causes surviving friends and relatives to turn to God. It is the duty of the minister therefore, to provide hope and comfort so they can realize that the greatest solace comes from God.

Bands: These are pieces of cloth with seals on them. They are used in baptism and mourning to cover the member’s eyes, so that he or she would not be distracted by his or her surroundings.

Doption: This word was derived from the English word adopt. It is a groaning sound made to various rhythms while praying or while on a spiritual journey.

Speaking in Tongues: This is one of the gifts of the Holy Spirit referred to in the Bible. It can be described as a phenomenon during which the believer speaks in languages unknown to him or her in his or her everyday life.

Roadside Preaching/Missions: Following the teachings and practices of John the Baptist, members of the Faith are encouraged to spread the messages they receive in their visions and dreams by preaching in public areas, such as at street corners or public parks.

Praying Aloud: Individuals or groups pray aloud during the church service, kneeling either in the center of the church or at the steps of the altar.

Mode of Dress: Members of the Baptist faith wear uniforms or spiritual clothes in various designs and colours. The choice of colour is guided by the instructions received during spiritual journeys. The uniforms define the office and function the member has in the church. Women must cover their heads during worship with large pieces of cloth called head-ties. Senior female members often wear their head-ties at all times and not just during worship.

CELEBRATIONS
Like other religious groups, there are special days that are celebrated in the Spiritual/Shouter Baptist Faith. These include the following:

Christmas: This festival is celebrated to commemorate the birth of Jesus Christ.

Passion Tide: This celebration begins with Palm Sunday. The Baptist Church follows Jesus Christ in his suffering, death and burial. The Services of the Holy Week provide the Members with the opportunity to live again through these historic events and relate these experiences to their own lives. The week ends with the celebration of the Last Supper of Jesus Christ on Holy Thursday night, and the services to commemorate His death and burial on Good Friday.

Easter: This celebrates Christ’s victory over death and is a joyous occasion.

Pentecost: This celebrates the descent of the Holy Spirit on the disciples of Jesus Christ. Pentecost is significant for Spiritual Shouter Baptists because it serves to remind members of the importance of unity and the presence of the Holy Spirit in the Church.

Church Anniversary: The establishment of a local church is a great achievement so, each year, members come together to review the past year and give thanks to God for keeping the Church together. It is also an opportunity for them to reflect on their achievements, count their blessings and make a commitment to serve God in the coming year.

Harvest: This celebration is held to recognize that God is responsible for the bounty of the land and the achievements in members’ lives. It also recognizes God’s mercy towards mankind.

Thanksgiving: This is held at various times throughout the year. It is a means of expressing gratitude to God for his blessings and is held after special occasions in members’ lives, such as success in an undertaking, or recovery from an illness. It also recognizes God’s mercy.

Flower Service or Candle Light Service: This celebration represents a time for reflecting on one’s life. According to Gibbs de Peza, “it is a time when man’s life is compared to that of the flower whose beauty fades at the end of the day and the candle whose light wanes as the wax is burnt out.” (1999). The flower and the candle are meant to remind mankind of the frailty of human existence. They also symbolize Jesus, without whose Light we would live in darkness.

Old Year/New Year: Members gather on Old Year’s Night to give thanks and praise to God for the passing year and expectantly await the new year.The new year is heralded with rejoicing, greetings and new year’s resolutions.

As in other religions, Spiritual and Shouter Baptists also have icons or symbolic sacred items that they use in their worship.The following icons are described by Hazel Ann Gibbs de Peza in her book My Faith: Spiritual Baptist Christian.

Altar: The altar is the highest level in the church, and is the symbol of belief, prayer, praise and worship. It is also the place of mercy where God meets with his servants and answers their prayers. The altar is adorned with vessels, flowers, candlesticks and candles.
 
Bell: The bell is used to at the beginning of the service to call members to worship, at the end of the service or according to spiritual instructions.
 
Shepherd's Rod and Staff: This symbolizes the divine authority and virtue of the office of the shepherd. That is, Jesus, the Good Shepherd.
 
Water: Water is used for washing, consecrating, cleansing and drinking. These uses are practical, symbolic and spiritual.
 
Glass with water: symbolizes the pure river of water coming from the throne of God. It is also a receptacle for flowers or bushes representing the tree of life in the midst of that river.
 
Centre Pole: This is the central point of the church where members’ prayers are offered. It symbolizes Jesus as the central point of worship. The physical pole, which is not generally present in churches today, also symbolizes the connection between earth and heaven. This connection is maintained by prayer.
 
Candles and Candlestick: The candlestick symbolizes the Baptist Church, and the candles, the spirit of the church. The candlestick holds the candles which provide the light. The light is symbolic of the Light of the world – Jesus.
 
Lothar: The Lothar is a vessel used in the church. It symbolizes the holy state of man before God in worship and contains water and flowers. The flowers beautify the church and symbolize peace, love and joy, which are kept alive by the water of life.
 
Oil: As in the Bible, oil is used for anointing, for healing and blessing. Anointing has great spiritual significance and is used to make things holy.
 
Flowers: Flowers are God’s handiwork and are used to decorate the altar, center pole and corners of the church. These represent man’s first habitat, the Garden of Eden, and symbolize the beauty, frailty and brevity of life.
 
Calabash: This is the first and original vessel made by God’s own hands. It also contains water and flowers to beautify the church.
 
Taria: This is a vessel used in the church. It symbolizes the circle of divinity within which man places himself in worship before God. The lothar stands in it, amid grains, which are symbolic of the grace of God.
 
Incense: This provides a sweet aroma that symbolizes the prayer of faithful. The rising of the smoke represents the rising of the prayers of the faithful to God

REPEAL OF SHOUTERS PROHIBTION ORDINANCE: No. 20-1951

I Assent,
H.E. Rance, 
Governor,
12th April, 1951

An Ordinance to remove the prohibition hitherto placed upon the Practices of the Body known as the Shouters.

Commencement
26th April, 1951

Enactment
Enacted by the Governor of Trinidad and Tobago with the advice and consent of the Legislative Council thereof.

Short title
1. This Ordinance may be cited as the Shouters Prohibition (Repeal) Ordinance, 1951.

Repeal of Ch.4 No. 19
2. The Shouters Prohibition Ordinance is hereby repealed.

Passed in Council this thirtieth day of March, in the year of Our Lord one thousand nine hundred and fifty-one.

W. Fung
Clerk of the Council

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BIBILOGRAPHY

This bibliography is a guide to the research collections of the National Library on the Spiritual and Shouter Baptists. It is not exhaustive, however it represents a selection of work currently available and to which more resources will be added in the future.

1. At the Crossroads: African Caribbean Religion and Christianity. Burton Sankeralli, ed.; intro. by Rev. Dr. George Mulrain. Port of Spain, Trinidad: Caribbean Conference of Churches, 1994

Heritage: REF WI 2999.609 729 At

2. Bell, William Columbus. Historical Report Given on the Occasion of the Celebration of the 15th Anniversary of the Founding of the First Baptist Church in Trinidad. Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago : [s.n.]

Heritage: REF WI Oversize 266 Be

3. Bisnauth, D A. History of Religions in the Caribbean. Trenton, New Jersey: Africa World Press, 1996.

Heritage & Adult: REF WI 200.9729 Bi

4. Bramble, John S. C. “Baptists: The Baptist Union of Trinidad and Tobago.” Murray, Eric John comp. and ed.- Religions of Trinidad and Tobago; A Guide to the History, Beliefs and Polity of Twenty-Three Religious Faiths. Port of Spain, Trinidad: Murray Publications, c1998: 41-49

Heritage: REF WI 200.9 72983 Rel

5. Bryans, Robin.Trinidad and Tobago: Isle of the Immortelles. London: Faber, 1967: 104, 110-111, 148, 158-159, 284

Heritage: REF WI 917.298 3 Br

6. Call Him by His name Jesus: a Collection of Papers From the First Annual Conference of Delegates and Rally for Jesus “96 of the NCOIBOTT. Gibbs De Peza, Hazel Ann, ed. San Fernando, Trinidad and Tobago: Fishnet Publications, CEPAC-Network, [1996].

Heritage: REF WI 286.1 72983 Ca

7. Clarke, Anthony. ed.; comp.; designer. A Spiritual Shouter Baptist: Sacred Solar Calendar. Trinidad and Tobago : N.p., n.d. (D.A. Print)

Heritage: REF WI

8. Highlights of Spiritual Shouter Baptist History in the Caribbean. A Spiritual Shouter Baptist 2004 Sacred solar calendar. Trinidad: Ryan Williams Pre-press Services Courtesy First Colour Imaging, [200?]:14-16

Heritage: REF WI 286.509 72983 Cl

9. Douglas, Raymond Oba. “Spiritual Baptists.” Murray, Eric John. comp. and ed. - Religions of Trinidad and Tobago: A Guide to the History, Beliefs and Polity of Twenty-Three Religious Faiths. Port of Spain, Trinidad: Murray Publications, c1998: 217-222

Heritage: REF WI 200.9 72983 Re

10. Gibbs de Peza, Hazel Ann. My Faith: Spiritual Baptist Christian. St. Augustine: School of Education, UWI, 1999.

Heritage: REF WI 286.1 72983 Gi

11. Glazier, Stephen D. Marchin' the Pilgrims Home: a Study of the Spiritual Baptists of Trinidad. Salem, Wis.: Sheffield Pub. Co. c1983, Rep. 1991.

Heritage: REF WI 286.50 972.983 Gl

Reprint. Originally published under the title: Marchin' the Pilgrims Home: Leadership and Decision-Making in an Afro-Caribbean Faith. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1983.

Heritage & Adult: REF WI 286.50 972 983 Gl

12. Gopaul-Whittington, Viola. History of the Spiritual Baptist Writings. Port of Spain: Printing Plus, 19-.

Heritage: REF WI 299.60972983 Wh

13. Hackshaw, John Milton. The Baptist Denomination: a Concise History Commemorating One Hundred and Seventy-Five Years (1816-1991) of the Establishment of the "Company Villages" and the Baptist Faith in Trinidad and Tobago. Foreword by Allan J. Parkes. Diego Martin, Trinidad and Tobago: Amphy and Bashana Jackson Memorial Society, c1992. Available from J. M. Hackshaw.

Heritage: REF WI 286.1972983 Ha

Hackshaw, John Milton.Company Villages: A Brief History. Diego Martin: J. M. Hackshaw, 1999

Heritage Adult: 972.98303 Ha

The Origin of the Christian Religion, the Baptist Faith, the Independents and the Spiritual Baptist Churches. Diego Martin, Trinidad & Tobago: Citadel Publishing Service, c2000.

Heritage: REF WI 286.1972983 Ha

16. Henry, Frances. Reclaiming African Religions in Trinidad: the Socio-Political Legitimation of the Orisha and Spiritual Baptist Faiths. Mona, Jamaica: UWI, 2003.

Heritage & Adult: REF WI 299.6072 98321 He

17. Herskovits, Melville and Frances Herskovits.Trinidad Village. New York: Octagon Books, 1964: 172-174; 283-189; 190-223; 321-339.

Heritage: REF WI 301.972983 He

18. Huggins, A. B. The Saga of the Companies. [Trinidad]: [The author], 1978.

Heritage: REF WI 286.1972983 Hu

19. Jacobs, C. M. BWIA Caribbean Beat (September/October 1996): 12

Heritage: REF WI Periodicals

20. Jacobs, C. M. Joy Comes In the Morning: Elton George Griffith and the Shouter Baptists. Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago: Caribbean Historical Society, 1996

Heritage: REF WI 286.1 72983 Ja

21. Lovelace, Earl. The Wine of Astonishment. London : Deutsch, 1982.

Heritage: REF WI Fiction

22. Mejias, Archbishop. National Conference on The Shouters Faith. Trinidad. Archbishop Mejias, 1992.

Heritage: REF WI 285.5 Na

23. Mentus, Ric. “Earl Lovelace: the Baptists Preserved the African Roots of Our Music.”  People 6:8 (March 1981): 41-43

Profile of Earl Lovelace and his work. Includes his thoughts on the Baptist Religion and the Rastafarians.

Heritage: REF WI Periodicals

24. Mundy, Gertrude. Instruction And Prayer Guide, St John Spiritual Baptist Gospel Chapel. Port-of-Spain: Bishop Gertrude Mundy, 1992.

Heritage: REF WI 264.66 Mu

25. Peter was a Fisherman: the 1937 Field Recordings of Melville and Frances Herskovits, Vol. 1. Cambridge, Mass.: Rounder Records, 1998. [sound recording].

Heritage: REF WI 782.421 62 Pe

Rastlin’ Jacob: the Music of the Spiritual Baptists of Trinidad and Tobago. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Rounder Records, 2003.[sound recording]

The CD contains songs of the Spiritual Baptists from the 1939 Trinidad field recordings of Melville & Frances Herskovits. The accompanying pamphlet provides information on the history and practices of the religion.

Heritage: REF WI 781.716 1 WI

27. Plummer, Robert. Baptists: Trinidad and Tobago Baptist Fellowship. Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago: Murray Publications, c1998: 50-58

Heritage: REF WI

28. Rose, Joseph. Spiritual Baptists. Trinidad: Rev Joseph Rose, 1989.

Heritage: REF WI 299.69 729 Sp

29.Saunders, Lessley. “The Merikin Baptists” of the Companies. S.l.: Lessley A. Saunders?, c2004? [Princes Town, Trinidad: Jordan’s Printing Service, 2004].

Heritage: REF WI 286.109 72983 Sa

Shouter's Prohibition (Repeal) Ordinance, 1951. Port-of-Spain, Trinidad and Tobago: National Evangelical Spiritual Baptist Faith, 1950.

Parliamentary debate on the repeal of the Shouters Prohibition Ordinance (1951) taken from Hansard.

Heritage: Oversize REF WI 328.72983 Ha

Spiritual Baptists. Port-of-Spain, Trinidad and Tobago, n.d.

Heritage: REF WI 299.69729 Sp

32. Springer, Pearl Eintou “Orisa and the Spiritual Baptist Religion in Trinidad and Tobago.” Ecumenism and Popular Religiousity, 1994.S.l.: 32. Caribbean Conference of Churches, 1994.

Heritage: REF WI 299.609 72983 Sp

33. Stephens, Patricia, Rev..The Spiritual Baptist Faith: African New World Religious Identity, History & Testimony. London: Kamak House, 1999.

34. Stewart, John O. “Aesthetics and the Early Baptist Church in Trinidad.” Springer, Pearl E., ed., The New Aesthetic and the Meaning of Culture in the Caribbean: Collected Papers from the Carifesta Symposia: Port of Spain, Trinidad, 1992

Heritage: REF WI 306.07290 Ne

35. Thomas, Eudora. A History of the Shouter Baptists in Trinidad and Tobago. Ithaca, N.Y.: Calaloux Publications, 1987.

Heritage Adult: REF WI 286.172983 Th

Trinidad Ethnicity. Kevin A. Yelvington, ed. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1993

Heritage: REF WI 305.0972983 Tr

37. Weiss, John McNish. Free Black American Settlers in Trinidad: 1815-1816. London: Mc.Nish and Weiss, 1995

Heritage: REF WI 972.9830096073 We

38. West Indian United Spiritual Baptist Sacred Order Inc. The Spiritual Baptist Ministers' Manual. Trinidad: W.I. Spiritual Baptist Sacred Order, c1993 (San Juan, Trinidad: Teachtech Printing Dept.), 1998 printing

Heritage: REF WI 286.1 72983 Sp

39. West Indian United Spiritual Baptist Sacred Order Inc. Popular Hymns and Choruses. [Trinidad and Tobago]: s.n., 199-?

Heritage: REF WI 781.7161 Po

40. Williams, Eric Eustace with introduction by John Milton Hackshaw, and Fitzroy Richardson. The March to Liberty Through Jesus Christ : a Discourse on Slavery and Emancipation Delivered on the Occasion of Emancipation Day Celebrations by the Baptists Held in San Fernando, Trinidad, W.I. August 1977. Diego Martin, Trinidad and Tobago: Citadel Publishing Service, [1997?].

Heritage: REF WI 305.8 Wi