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CARNIVAL

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  • "Mama Dis is Mas"
  • Cannes Brulées
  • The Jamette Carnival
  • Carnival in the Twentieth Century
  • Traditional Carnival Characters
  • Mas Pioneers
  • Carnival Dates
  • Carnival Winners 2005
  • Carnival Winners 2006
  • Carnival Winners 2007
  • Carnival Winners 2008
  • Carnival Winners 2009
  • Carnival Winners 2010
  • Carnival Winners 2011
  • Glossary

“MAMA DIS IS MAS”

INTRODUCTION
Carnival in Trinidad and Tobago is one of grandeur, colour, revelry, rhythm, and gaiety. Evolving over the past two centuries from an elegant, exclusive affair to a truly all-inclusive national festival, it is by far the most spectacular event on the nation’s calendar. Although a major part of the Trinidad Carnival mystique lies in its unique ability to bring people of diverse backgrounds together in harmonious circumstances, the festival was not born to such noble pursuits.

From the inception of street parades in 1839 and for more than 100 years thereafter, the celebration flowed in two distinctly different social streams - upper and lower classes. For the most part, the upper classes held their masked balls in the great houses of sugar estates during the 19th century Carnivals, then mobilized the mas (but maintained their distance), by using the trays of lorries as their stage until well into the 1950s.

In order to fully understand the development of this festival, it is necessary to examine the complex historical, social, cultural and political contexts which gave birth to this national celebration.

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
In 1498, Christopher Columbus landed in Trinidad and, as was the practice in the so called age of Discovery and Exploration, took possession of the island in the name of the King and Queen of Spain. The island did not have the promise of immense wealth like the other countries in Spain’s Western empire. Trinidad was, therefore, largely ignored for over two hundred and fifty years.

In 1776, out of concern for this state of affairs, the Spanish king issued a Cedula of Population, which opened the island to colonization by the French. A second Cedula followed in 1783. This saw an even larger influx of planters from the French West Indian islands of Martinique, Guadeloupe and Saint Dominigue. Arriving also were Free Coloureds and Africans. The French brought with them their cultural traditions, language, dress, food and customs.

In 1797, Trinidad was captured by the British and was made a crown colony of Great Britain. The British immediately began the process of colonization as they had in Barbados and Jamaica two centuries before.

In this era, the period between Christmas and Lent was marked by great merrymaking and feasting by both the French and English. Historians of the nineteenth century wrote about the balls, fetes champetres (country style parties) and house to house visiting engaged in by the white upper class. It was also the custom of the British to impose martial law during the Christmas season. Military exercises were performed at the start of this martial law.

The Carnival celebrations between 1783 and 1838 were dominated by the white elite. Africans and coloureds (persons of mixed race) were forbidden by law to participate in street festivities. This is not to say that they did not celebrate in their own way in their compounds.

During this period also, there were numerous balls, parties and other entertainment. This gave the Africans some measure of freedom to enjoy themselves and engage in merry making. These festivities, along with the pomp and ceremony involved in imposing martial law, provided the Africans with ideas for some of the earliest masquerades for Carnival.

The pre-emancipation Carnival saw whites costume themselves as Negues Jadin (Negres Jardin - French for Garden Negroes) and mulatresses. They also reenacted the Cannes Brulées (French for Burning Canes): the practice of rounding up slaves to put out fires in the cane field. With the emancipation of the slaves in 1838, however, the door was opened for the full participation of the Africans in the Carnival.

CANNES BRULEES

ENTER THE DRAGONS
While Emancipation brought freedom for the Africans, it also brought new concerns for the whites. The British were entrenching themselves as the new Colonial power in the West. The French had lost their dominance in society. All the whites were caught up in the problems of labour, low productivity, and financial structures. Therefore, the opportunity was provided for Africans to take over Carnival and embrace it as an expression of their new-found freedom.

In the beginning they celebrated the anniversary of their freedom (August 1) by reenacting scenes of Cannes Brulées. Cannes Brulées had its genesis during slavery. Whenever a fire broke out in the cane fields, the slaves on the surrounding properties were rounded up and marched to the spot, to the accompaniment of horns and shells. The gangs were followed by the drivers cracking their whips and urging them, with cries and blows, to harvest the cane before it was burnt. This event became known as the Cannes Brulées – Later called Canboulay.

After Emancipation the slaves used this celebration as a symbol of the change in their status. They engaged in masking, dancing, stick fighting, mocking the whites and reenacting scenes of past enslavement. The August 1st celebration lasted for about a decade, after which it was transferred to the pre-Lenten season. The Canboulay usually started from midnight on the Sunday. This was, in essence, the beginning of the Africans’ Carnival. During this period the whites and coloureds ceased their participation in the street festival, thereby bringing an end to an era.

FROM CANNES BRULEES TO CARNIVAL
Africans were unperturbed by the preoccupations of whites and coloureds and proceeded to celebrate with gay abandon. They introduced their own musical instruments and dance movements. The drum replaced the fiddle, the poui stick dethroned the sword, while the nut and minard gave way to the Kalenda and Bamboula. The vigour and vibrancy of the African masquerade, the militaristic nature of the Kalenda dance and the violence of the stick fighting rituals, were frowned upon by the ruling class.

The Kalenda (Calinda), a stick dance probably of African origin, was a popular form of entertainment for male slaves. It is an agile and dexterous dance performed to drums and chants while the dancers engage in mock combat with their sticks (bois). In the second half of the 19th century Canboulay and stick-fights dominated the Carnival. The main activity in the Canboulay was the stick-fight. The term Kalenda emerged as a general term for the stick-fight, the dance, the songs and other performances that accompanied it. The stick-fight involved two persons at a time with sticks three and a half to four feet long, who would Karay – take up a defensive position – in the middle of a circle (gayelle) and try to draw blood.

The stick fighters were organized into bands representing different social groups. They were lead by a lead singer called a chantuelle or chanteuse, whose duty it was to egg on the fighters. The chantuelle was supported by a chorus of women. The purpose of the singing was to deride the opponent in song. These activities were all part of the Cannes Brulées and they preceded the street carnival of Monday and Tuesday.

The torchbearers, carrying flambeaux, led the march. They were followed by the batonnieres or stick fighters, then came the king and queen and royal attendants, body of supporters, substitute stick men, paraders, chanteuse, lead band. They all marched to kalenda songs accompanied by horns, conch shells, rattles and skin drums. Cannes Brulées marked the beginning of the organized carnival bands.

THE JAMETTE CARNIVAL
This term was used by the French and English to describe the Carnival celebrations of the African population during the period 1860 to 1896. It comes from the French word “diametre” meaning beneath the diameter of respectability, or the underworld . It was used at that time to describe a certain class in the community.

The “Jamettes” occupied the barrack yards of East Port of Spain. They were the stickfighters, prostitutes, chantuelles, matadors and dustmen. They lived in appalling conditions in areas which were rife with all the conditions for social instability: crime, vagrancy, disease, prostitution, unemployment, sexual permissiveness and dysfunctional families. It is no wonder, therefore, that Carnival was embraced with such fervour. For the Jamettes, it was a necessary release from the struggle that was their daily lives.

The view of the whites was that the Carnival activities were immoral, obscene and violent. The kalenda, the drumming, the dances and the sexually explicit masquerades were thought to be totally objectionable. They were fully supported in this view by the contemporary press. Throughout this period there was a sustained attack on Carnival in most newspaper editorials. This ranged from outright condemnation to calls for a total ban. This was also the era of repressive legislation. The British Colonial Government passed several laws banning many of the activities associated with the Carnival including dancing to drums, carrying lighted torches and “obscene songs and dances”.

However, it took more than legislation and police batons to stop the Carnival. The more repressive the legislation, the more aggressive were the responses. Finally, in 1881 masqueraders carried out a planned resistance against the police who attempted to stop the revelry. In the aftermath of the riot of 1881 Governor Freeling addressed the people and declared “There shall be no interference with your masquerade.” (qtd. in Liverpool 310). By acknowledging the importance of the Carnival to the people he proved that it was much more than just music, masquerade and dance but rather a necessary form of cultural expression.

Unfortunately, this reprieve was short-lived. The following years saw an increase in governmental control over Carnival and pressure from the media to suppress the more “objectionable” aspects of the Carnival. The people's Canboulay Festival was abolished in 1884 and replaced with a restricted festival which took place at dawn on the Monday preceding Ash Wednesday. J’Ouvert (breaking of the day) became well established, with the tamboo bamboo replacing the African drums.

The Canboulay and the stickfighters were eventually driven underground. Stickfighting, however, continued to flourish in rural areas from Tunapuna to Sangre Grande in the east and Freeport to Moruga in central and south Trinidad.

CARNIVAL IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY

The first two decades of the twentieth century marked the gradual re-entry of the upper classes into the festival, after having withdrawn from the celebrations for most of the latter half of the nineteenth century. They returned after the Carnival was purged of some of its 'coarser' elements. However, they did not take to the streets but came in their decorated trucks and lorries. It took another forty years before they rejoined the street masquerade. Until then, they restricted their participation to house parties, club dances and fancy balls.

Once again, Carnival took on a more organized and European character. Fancy dress balls were held at the Princes Building opposite to the Queen’s Park Savannah. In 1922, the first major Carnival stage spectacle was presented by the Les Amantes de Jesus Society – a voluntary organization under the leadership of M. Joseph Scheult. The Society gave an annual charity ball on Carnival Monday night. This started in the 1920s and continued until 1948. This period saw increased participation by the various ethnic groups and classes in society. The private sector also became involved, organizing competitions and sponsoring prizes.

The Carnival Sunday night Canboulay procession of the post Emancipation was replaced by a Dimanche Gras Show. This annual masquerade ball was organized by the Society of Les Amantes De Jesus, when a new venue necessitated a change from a ball to a stage spectacle. This stage presentation attempted to weave together all the main strands of Carnival – dance, costume and characters.

The Dimanche Gras Show was inaugurated in 1948 as a vignette in the Carnival Queen Show. It was celebrated on Carnival Sunday night under the auspices of the Carnival Committee and continues to be the premier Pre-Carnival celebration. Although it has undergone several changes it is still seen as an attempt to create a ” valid theatrical experience out of the mass of Carnival material” (Hill).

In the early 1950s, with the rise in nationalism, the government decided that Carnival was too important a national festival to be left in the hands of private enterprise. The CDC (Carnival Development Committee) was therefore set up in 1957 and given the responsibility of managing the carnival celebrations. The festival began to resemble its present day form with Jour Ouvert (later anglicized to J'Ouvert) opening Carnival Monday from 4.00 am to 12.00 noon.

By mid-century, Carnival was completely under the control of the central government. This meant more funding, more structure and increased participation by all sectors. This was the “Golden Age of Carnival”. Bandleaders and designers sought inspiration from history, films, great personalities and world events as they conceptualized their portrayals winning pieces. The economic aspect of Carnival was evident even then as businessmen responded to the opportunities created for the importation of fine fabrics and accessories for costumes. Masqueraders too, were aware of the benefits of being crowned King or Queen of Carnival.

By the mid-1950s, mas became very competitive and a "Band of the Year" award was initiated in 1955 to recognize the effort that was being put into the presentations. In 1956, participation was on the increase and more than ten bands crossed the Queen's Park Savannah stage with over 300 masqueraders. From 1957 to 1959, the Band-of-the-Year first place winner was awarded $500. In 1957, an innovative bandleader from Woodbrook, Port-of-Spain, by the name of George Bailey, made a stunning appearance on the mas scene, at the young age of 21, and changed the face of Carnival forever. The authenticity of his presentation Back to Africa won Bailey Band-of-the-Year honours that year when he beat back other breathtaking presentations such as Irwin McWilliams' Ten Commandments and Harold Saldenah’s The Glory That Was Greece. The extensive research that was reflected in the splendour of Bailey's presentation compelled others to follow suit in later years.

In 1961, the first prize for the Band-of-the-Year was increased from $500 to $1,000 and, in 1963, a breakthrough was scored by steelbands when the Silver Stars Steelband of Newtown, Port-of-Spain, copped the Band-of-the-Year title with its presentation of Gulliver's Travels. It would be the first and only time in the 20th century that this feat would be accomplished by a steelband. By the mid-1960s, bands began to move from historical to fantasy themes and by 1969, the masquerading population was on the increase.

Today, Carnival is Trinidad and Tobago’s main tourist attraction and has inspired several Carnivals in cities where citizens of Trinidad and Tobago have settled, including New York, Toronto, Miami and London. Other Caribbean islands such as Jamaica, St.Vincent and Grenada have similar festivities but Trinidad and Tobago Carnival remains the greatest show on earth.

TRADITIONAL CARNIVAL CHARACTERS
The stories behind the traditional Carnival characters lend meaning and significance to these unusual portrayals. Often an individual plays one specific persona year after year and is familiar with the traditions associated with that role. The custom is usually passed on orally to family members or other interested persons. According to Elma Reyes, some of these portrayals were performed as “mas' for money” (16). The masqueraders would offer entertainment in the form of humour, songs or skits in exchange for money. In some cases threats and scare tactics were used to coerce bystanders into giving them cash. Some of the best known characters are as follows:

BABY DOLL
The baby doll character was portrayed mainly in the 1930's, but is still seen every year at Ole Mas competitions. The masquerader portrays a gaily dressed woman, decked out in a frilled dress and bonnet. In her arms she carries a doll which symbolises an illegitimate baby. The masquerader usually stops male passers-by and accuses them of being the baby's father. She would then demand money to buy milk for the baby. This character was sometimes portrayed by a man who would speak in a high-pitched voice.

BATS
The bat costume is normally black or brown and fitted tightly over the masquerader's body. The headpiece covers the head entirely, with the player being able to see through the mouth, or lifting it up to his forehead. It is made of swansdown with papier-maché face, teeth, nose and eyes. Leather shoes with metal claws for toes are normally used. Ordinary shoes can also be adapted by attaching of long socks, metal claws and a second sole. The bat wings are made from wire and bamboo or cane, and are covered with the same cloth as the skin-fitting costume. These wings can extend to 12 or 15 feet, and the masquerader's arms are fastened to them. Matching gloves complete the costume. There is a bat dance to go with the costume. During performance, the masquerader crawls, flaps, dances on his toes, and folds his wings in a series of choreographed movements, imitating those of the bat.

BOOKMAN
The Bookman, also referred to as the Gownman or Ruler, is a feature of devil mas portrayals. The other two groups of characters in the devil band are the imps and beasts.The Bookman's costume consists of Tudor-style pants, or a richly embroidered gown made of velvet and satin, with a pleated or fluted bodice, and a flowing cape festooned with biblical scenes. On his head is an oversized head mask which contains small horns and carries a demonic expression. The face of this mask is supposed to mirror the face of the devil himself. The Bookman carries a pen and a large book in which he writes the names of prospective souls for the devil. The Bookman is the principal character in the devil band, and, in keeping with his status, his movement is waltz-like, with constant bowing. Musical accompaniment is provided by an orchestra of trumpet, saxophones, bass and drums playing conventional tunes.

BURROKEET
Burrokeet, derived from the Spanish word burroquito (little donkey), is constructed from bamboo so as to give the illusion of a dancer riding a small burro or donkey. This masquerade was derived from both the East Indian culture and the Venezuelan Spaniards. The costume is comprised of a well-decorated donkey's head made from coloured paper. This head is attached to a bamboo frame. The masquerader enters through a hole at the back of the donkey's neck and carries the reins in his hands, thereby creating the illusion that he is its rider. The body of the donkey is covered in a long satin skirt with a sisal (rope) tail, sometimes decorated with flowers. The bit and bridle are made of coloured cord. The rider wears a satin skirt and a large matador straw hat and dances in a way that mimmicks the antics of a donkey. He also performs a dance called Burriquite, which originated in Venezuela.

COW BAND
The Cow Band, which dates back to the days of the Canboulay, consisted of a small group of men dressed in costumes of sacking made from rice bags. These costumes were completely covered with dried plantain leaves. Each masquerader wore a homemade papier-mâché mask representing the head of a cow surmounted by a pair of horns. Members of the band would frolic and move through the crowds behaving like real cows. This masquerade became dormant for a few years, and was later revived by the employees of the abattoir, and became part of the J'Ouvert celebrations.

In later years, on Carnival Tuesday, the Cow Band came out in brightly coloured costumes, with picadors and a matador who would challenge the cows. The cow character's costume consisted of tight-fitting breeches of yellow velvet or satin, with gold braid and spangles along the sides and around the bottom at the knees, a tight-fitting maroon satin long-sleeved blouse completely covered with a soutache decoration of gold braid, gloves, cream stockings and alpagatas. A well-secured cap-like contraption on the head supported a pair of highly polished cow horns. A short section of the hairy part of the cow's tail was attached to the seat of the breeches. An imported wire gauze mask replaced the cow mask of the previous day.

Male singers and the musicians wore yellow breeches, maroon shirts with billowing sleeves tight at the wrist, a sash around the waist and red beret. The women wore yellow skirts, red or maroon bodices, and headties. All wore masks of the wire gauze type, those of the women being decorated with gold braid along the forehead and at the sides, with gaudy earrings dangling from them. Music was provided by such string instruments as the mandolin, teeplay, bandol, banjo, cuatro, guitar, violin and chac-chacs (maracas).

DAME LORRAINE
The Dame Lorraine or Dame Lorine was imitative of the mas played by the 18th and early 19th century French planters, who would dress up in elegant costumes of the French aristocracy and parade in groups at private homes, particularly on Carnival Sunday night. They also performed the sophisticated dances of the period. The liberated slaves recreated these costumes – complete with elaborate fans and hats – in their own fashion, using materials that were readily available, such as assorted rags and imitation jewellery-type items, but emphasizing and exaggerating the physical characteristics, and dancing to small bandol and cuatro bands.

The major Dame Lorraine performers through the years however, were descendants of the French planters and persons of some respectability, who hid behind masks, mainly of the fine wire mesh variety, and found their way into the downtown Old Yards, where they paraded and danced for all and sundry. The tune which became associated with the Dame Lorraines still exists, and is played whenever they appear in groups at cultural events.

FANCY INDIANS
This mas is based on the indigeneous people of North America. The wearer decides how expensive or expansive he wants this costume to be. The headpiece, in its simplest form, is worn with feathers sticking up, and more feathers making tails down the back. More elaborate headpieces are built over bamboo or wire frames. The headpiece then becomes so heavy, it needs to be supported by a structure that covers the masquerader's entire body. This, the masquerader's wigwam, is richly worked with ostrich plumes, mirrors, beads, feather work, papier-maché masks, totem poles, canoes and ribbons. Bands of Indians can comprise a warrior chief and his family, a group of chiefs, or a group of warriors.

The Fancy Indian is the most popular variety of Indian mas. A feature of this mas is the language or languages they speak, in a call and response pattern, possibly adapted from the Black Indians of the New Orleans Mardi Gras and their characteristic movements. Other kinds of Indians that are disappearing are generally known as Wild Indians. These comprise Red Indians (Warahoons) and Blue Indians, which have links with the indigenous peoples of Venezuela. There are also Black Indians or African Indians.

JAB JAB 
The name of this mas is derived from the French patois for "Diable Diable". It is pretty devil mas. The costume consists of a Kandal or satin knickers, and satin shirt with points of cloth at the waist, from which bells hang. On the chest, there is a shaped cloth panel which is decorated with swansdown, rhinestones and mirrors. Stockings and alpagatas are worn on the feet, while the headdress consists of a hood with stuffed cloth horns. The costume can come in alternating colours and be divided into front and back panels. The Jab Jab has a thick whip of plaited hemp which he swings and cracks threateningly. These whips can reduce the costumes of other Jab Jabs to threads.

JAB MOLASSIE
Jab is the French patois for Diable (Devil), and Molassie is the French patois for Mélasse (Molasses). The Jab Molassie is one of several varieties of devil mas played in Trinidad and Tobago Carnival. The costume consists of short pants or pants cut off at the knee, and a mask and horns. The Jab Molassie would carry chains, and wear locks and keys around his waist, and carry a pitch fork. He may smear his body with grease, tar, mud or coloured dyes (red, green or blue). The Jab Molassie "wines" or gyrates to a rhythmic beat that is played on tins or pans by his imps. While some of his imps supply the music, others hold his chain, seemingly restraining him as he pulls against them in his wild dance. The differences among the various forms of devil mas were once distinct, but have become blurred over time.

MIDNIGHT ROBBER
The Midnight Robber is one of the most beloved characters in traditional Carnival. Both his costume and his speech are distinctive. His "Robber Talk" is extravagant and egocentric, and boastful. He brags about his great ancestry, exploits, strength, fearlessness and invincibility. This "Robber Talk" is derived from the tradition of the African Griot or storyteller, and the speech patterns and vocabulary are imitative of his former master. He wears a black satin shirt, pantaloons, influenced by the American cowboy tradition, and a black, flowing cape on which the skull and cross bones are painted. Also painted on the cape is his sobriquet. He also wears a huge black, broad-brimmed, fringed hat on which a coffin is often superimposed. In his hand he carries a weapon –either a dagger, sword or gun – and a wooden money box in the shape of a coffin. He carries a whistle which he blows to punctuate his tales of valour.

MINSTRELS
Black and white minstrels are based on the American minstrel shows popular around the turn of the century in which white singers painted their faces black. The local minstrels are black persons who perform with their faces painted white. Their costume consists of a scissors tail coat, striped trousers, tall straw hat and gloves. One or two minstrel bands still remain, entertaining audiences with popular old American songs such as Swanee River and Who's Sorry Now. They accompany themselves on the guitar and the rattling bones played between the hands. They may sometimes have a dance routine.

MOKO JUMBIE 
Moko is a derivation of the god "Moko", coming straight out of West African tradition. Moko is a “diviner” in the Congo language. The term "jumbie" or ghost was added by the freed slaves. It was believed that the height of the stilts was associated with the ability to foresee evil faster than ordinary men. The Moko Jumbie was felt to be a protector of the village. This mas is well-known throughout the Caribbean. It is an authentic African masquerade mounted on sticks. The stilt walker plays on stilts 10 to 12 feet high. His costume consists of a brightly coloured skirt or pants, jacket and elaborate hat. He would dance through the streets all day, and collect money from people on the upper floors and balconies. His dance was similar to a jig, and he was often accompanied by a drum, flute and triangle.

NEGUE JADIN
This character, which is now extinct, goes back to the pre-emancipation era. During that period, Carnival was observed mainly by the upper classes . While the slaves and free coloureds were not forbidden from celebrating Carnival, they were compelled to stay within their own stratum of society and not presume to rub shoulders with the aristocracy. The planter class on the other hand, often imitated the dress and customs of their slaves during the carnival celebrations. One of their favourite disguises was that of the Negue Jadin (Negre Jardin – French for garden slave).

This costume consists of tight-fitting satin or khaki breeches reaching to just above the knee where willows are hung, and a bright, plain coloured shirt with a "fol" or heart-shaped panel of contrasting colour sewn on the chest and bordered with swansdown. The fol is decorated with tiny mirrors and rhinestones. As with all carnival costumes during this period, the masquerader covered his face with a mask. After emancipation, the former slaves adopted the Negue Jadin character in their carnival celebrations, but as a satirical portrayal of the planter trying to imitate them.

PIERROT GRENADE
The Pierrot Grenade is a descendant of the Pierrot – a finely dressed masquerader and deeply learned scholar, who displayed his erudition by spelling polysyllabic words and quoting passages from Shakespeare. He was also a feared fighter with a whip or bull pistle, and was followed by a band of female supporters who fought on his behalf against other Pierrot groups. His descendant, the Pierrot Grenade, is a satire on the richer and more respectable Pierrot.

The Pierrot Grenade is egotistical and retains the scholarly mien, but instead of the elegant costume, he wears rags. His gown consists of crocus bag (burlap), on which strips of coloured cloth, small tins containing pebbles, and small boxes that rattle, are attached. He may wear a hat or a coloured head tie on his head, and his face is covered with a grotesque mask. The mask provides anonymity for someone who delights in making barbed comments on "respectable" members of the community.

SAILOR MAS
This character was introduced in the 1880s when British, French and American naval ships came to Trinidad. It is one of the more popular costumes, being lightweight and inexpensive. There are several variations on the sailor mas, including Free French Sailor, King Sailor, and Fancy Sailor to name a few. The costume of the Free French sailor consists of a black beret with the name of the ship on the rim of the beret, a tight-fitting short sleeve bow neck jersey with horizontal blue and white stripes, long, bell-bottomed black melton pants, and black shoes.

The King Sailor's costume consists of white drill or corduroy pants and shirt with a sailor collar. There are epaulettes on each shoulder, a red sash across the chest, a crown on the masquerader's head, cords, medals and war ribbons on the left side of the chest and a walking stick in his hand.

The Fancy Sailor was an off-shoot of the King Sailor. The Fancy Sailor costume consists of papier-mâché headpieces, decorated and painted to look like birds, animals or plants. The sailor outfit is decorated with ribbons, medals, braiding, swansdown and other embellishments to match the headpieces. There are several dances to go along with the sailor mas portrayal, such as the Bote, Crab, Marrico, Pachanga, Rock de Boat, Skip Jack and the Camel Walk.

MAS PIONEERS
Trinidad Carnival is many things – music, colour, movement, but above all, it is the spectacle of the masquerade. Thousands of costumed revellers transform the landscape into a visual fantasia. But for those individuals whose imagination, craft and passion created legends, the decades following World War II were a golden age for costume design. Some of the most influential names in costume design include:

HAROLD SALDENAH (1925-1985) 
Born in the east Port of Spain district of Belmont in 1925, Harold “Sally” Saldenah began his Carnival career in the years immediately following World War I, assisting bandleaders such as Harry Basilon, Harold Tang Yuk and Mansie Lei. Inspired by the 1951 Hollywood movie of the same name, Saldenah designed his first mas band "Quo Vadis" in 1953 with Roman soldier helmets made of papier mache painted to look authentic. In 1955, he introduced metalwork to mas by employing Ken Morris to fabricate copper breastplates for Roman soldiers in his winning Band of the Year presentation "Imperial Rome 44BC to 96AD." He was also the first bandleader to create sections in his presentations. His mastery of both history and fantasy earned him a total of six (6) band of the year titles.

BAND OF THE YEAR TITLES
Imperial Rome 44 BC to 96 AD
Norse Gods and Vikings
Lost City of Atlantis
Crees of Canada
Mexico 1519 to 1521
El Dorado, City of Gold

GEORGE BAILEY (1933-1970) 
Dubbed “Sir George” by his friends, George Bailey is regarded as one of the greatest carnival bandleaders. Born in the west Port of Spain suburb of Woodbrook, Bailey produced his first independent band in 1956. In his second year as a bandleader and designer, he changed the popular opinion of African history, and Carnival itself, with his winning presentation “Back to Africa”, which earned him his first of six (6) Band of theYear titles. Before Bailey, the crowds did not believe any African mas could match the grandeur of Roman or Greek themes. Traditional African masquerade used rags, paint, and spears to portray an image of an uncivilized past. In his presentation, Bailey debunked this stereotype by carefully researching the topic and using the same elaborate display usually associated with bands depicting the history of Europe.

BAND OF THE YEAR TITLES
Back to Africa
Relics of Egypt
Ye Saga of Merrie England
Byzantine Glory
Somewhere in New Guinea
Bright Africa

KEN MORRIS (1924-1992)
One of the foremost Carnival artists was the master of copper work, the late Ken Morris. Born in Belmont in 1924, he brought Carnival and fine art together, his skill and imagination erasing the distinction between the two. His skill was in high demand for almost forty years by every major bandleader. He was self-taught for the most part and perfected the art known as repousse, the process by which sheet metal is shaped into a sphere or dome by heating. He introduced this technique into Carnival costume design and was responsible for a whole new era of mas. Demand for his skills peaked in the 1950’s with the great bands whose historical themes demanded realistically rendered metalwork. Morris was also an acclaimed sculptor.

CITO VELASQUEZ (1929-  )
Cito Velasquez has been hailed as the Masmen’s Master. He has been a powerful influence in the design of fancy sailor costumes, with their elaborate headpieces, and the large kings and queens of the bands. He began his career in the late 1940’s when he started bending wire for the mas presentations of two east Port of Spain steelbands, Fascinators and Bar Twenty. At first, he designed only basic Indian headpieces. Initially he learned his craft from a masman named Tennessee Brown who was the chief wire-bender for the Fascinators. He soon outdid the master and in 1959, from his mas camp in Barataria, three miles east of Port of Spain, he produced his first band, Fruits and Flowers. The costumes represented giant tropical fruits and flowers made from 12- or 16-gauge wire and papier mâché that were masterfully decorated. Each piece was then used to create a fancy sailor headpiece. The band’s headpieces were chosen to decorate downtown Port of Spain for the independence celebration of 1962.

IRVIN McWILLIAMS (1920- )
Irvin “Mac” McWilliams entered the Carnival scene in 1957 with the band Cleopatra and the Kings of Europe. He continued in this vein until 1961 when he presented the band Hail La Trinity, the first Carnival band with an entirely local theme. McWilliams returned to historical and fantasy themes and for the next nine years the band of the year title eluded him. Finally, in 1971 he won with his groundbreaking Wonders of Buccoo Reef. He repeated the feat the following year with Anancy Story and again in 1978 with Know Your Country. At last, local themes were being highlighted and appreciated in the carnival arena. His presentations taught people about their culture and he was loved by masqueraders and spectators for creating mas that reflected Caribbean life.

BAND OF THE YEAR TITLES
Wonders of Buccoo Reef
Anancy Story
Know Your Country

CARLISLE CHANG (1921-2001)
Born in San Juan in 1921, Carlisle Chang was the consummate Caribbean artist. Among other things he was a painter, sculptor, photographer and designer. He drew on the ethnically diverse community in which he lived to produce truly indigenous works of art. Chang was not a bandleader but he designed several bands for the bandleader Stephen Lee Heung from 1964-1975. One of his most memorable productions, China, the Forbidden City, won him his first Band of the Year title in 1967. It was a spectacular display of the temples, gardens and animal life of China. He won again in 1975 for the portrayal We Kind Ah People in which he celebrated the various cultures of the people of Trinidad and Tobago. Sadly, this was the final band that he designed. For about twenty (20) years, from the late 70s to the mid 90s, Chang disappeared from the art scene. He reemerged in the 90s when there was a renewal of interest in his work.

BAND OF THE YEAR TITLES
China, the Forbidden City (bandleader, Stephen Lee Heung)
We Kind Ah People (bandleader, Stephen Lee Heung

EDMOND HART (1923- )
LIL HART (1930-1991)

Edmond and Lil Hart represent one of carnival’s most creative and productive collaborations. Edmond Hart became involved in carnival from an early age and helped to produce mas with the bandleader Bobby Ammon. He took up the leadership role in 1961 and by 1962 his wife Lil joined the team. Together they produced mas for approximately thirty (30) years until their separation and Lil’s death in 1991. As a team they were unstoppable, garnering five (5) Band of the Year titles. Edmond handled the production side of things and Lil looked after the creative design. Lil is reputed to have said that her masqueraders must have fun. Thus her costume designs were always simple and comfortable. The Harts are also credited with introducing “bikini mas” which is the use of the bath suit as the basic unit of the carnival costume.

BAND OF THE YEAR TITLES
Playing Cards
Inferno
Mas Sweet Mas
Islands in the Sun
Out of This World

GEORGE “DIAMOND JIM” HARDING (1915-1999)
JASON GRIFFITH (1927- )

George Harding of Belmont, popularly known as “Diamond Jim”, was the unofficial king of sailor mas. This type of mas dates back to the late 19th century, when British and American warships paid regular visits to Trinidad, and crewmen on shore leave were a common sight in Port of Spain. Later, around the time of the Second World War, its popularity was boosted by the large American naval presence. During that time, the traditional sailor mas was meant to mimic the actions of the drunken sailors. Harding however, changed this from caricature to surrealism. He devised more and more elaborate headpieces that varied from fish to airplanes. Jason Griffith, one of Harding’s early apprentices and creative heir, would continue the tradition of fancy sailor mas. In 1949, he launched his own band, USS Sullivan. In 1969, fancy sailor mas experienced a major revival, when Griffith launched Old Fashioned Sailors. He continues to maintain much of the humorous style of outlandish headpieces made famous by Harding. However, he also employs new themes such as sailors in outer space in his 1984 band Extra Terrestrial Voyage.

STEPHEN DEREK (1952- )
Born in Woodbrook, Port of Spain, Stephen Derek is one of the few bandleaders who has mastered all the traditional skills such as wire-bending, papier mache moulding and carving. He was fortunate to learn his craft in the camp of the mas legend George Bailey. He continues to produce costumes that reflect the golden age of mas making. His major contribution however has been his involvement in carnival beyond Trinidad and Tobago. Derek has designed for carnivals in cities like New York, Toronto, Boston, Atlanta, Miami and Houston to name a few. His company, D'Midas International, has several offices in North America.

WAYNE BERKELEY (1940- )
Wayne Berkeley is hailed not only as a bandleader but as a professional and a perfectionist. He grew up in Belmont in the vicinity of Harold Saldenah's mas camp. Art became an integral part of his formative years both at home and at school. His first furrow into mas making was the 1965 band Fan Fair. With this presentation he gave a hint of where his designs were headed. He had moved away from the historical costumes to the area of concepts and fantasy. Over the years he has been praised for his exquisite designs, attention to detail, innovation and efficiency. He has designed for the carnival stage as well as for dramatic productions at home and abroad. With a record of eleven (11) Band of the Year titles he is indeed a master of his craft.

BAND OF THE YEAR TITLES
Secrets of the Sky (bandleader, Bobby Ammon)
Kaleidoscope
Genesis
Rainforest (bandleader, Stephen Lee Heung)
Heromyth
Nineteen Ninety
Swan Lake
Titanic
Strike Up the Band
Miracle
Amarant: The Secret Garden

PETER MINSHALL (1941- )
Peter Minshall was born in British Guiana but moved to Trinidad at an early age. He burst onto the carnival scene in 1976 as the designer for Stephen Lee Heung's band Paradise Lost and has never looked back. Even before this however, his design of Sherry-Ann Guy's 1974 costume Hummingbird caused quite a stir in carnival circles. Known for his controversial portrayals, Minshall created social commentary in the midst of "pretty mas" thus reviving the tradition of mas as satire. He also used many aspects of the traditional characters in his design. It became the norm to see bat wings transformed into birds or for devil mas to become the King of Carnival. Minshall's other trademark was carnival as theatre. His masqueraders did not play the mas, they became the mas. Critics accused him of destroying carnival but the people flocked to see him. He won the most People's Choice awards even when he failed to win Band of the Year. He also earned kudos on the international stage for his design of the opening ceremony of the 1992 Barcelona Olympic Games.

BAND OF THE YEAR TITLES
Paradise Lost (bandleader, Stephen Lee Heung)
Carnival of the Sea
Jungle Fever
Carnival Is Colour
Hallelujah
Song of the Earth
Tapestry

CARNIVAL DATES 1946 - 2014
Carnival in Trinidad and Tobago is celebrated on the Monday and Tuesday before Ash Wednesday or forty days (excluding Sundays) before the Christian celebration of Easter.

1946 March 4 & 5

1973 March 5 & 6

2000 March 6 & 7

1947 February 17 & 18

1974 February 25 & 26

2001 February 26 & 27

1948 February 9 & 10

1975 February 10 & 11

2002 February 11 & 12

1949 February 28 & March 1

1976 February 1 & 2

2003 March 3 & 4

1950 February 20 & 21

1977 February 21 & 22

2004 February 23 & 24

1951 February 5 & 6

1978 February 6 & 7

2005 February 7 & 8

1952 February 25 & 26

1979 February 25 & 27

2006 February 27 & 28

1953 February 16 & 17

1980 February 18 & 19

2007 February 19 & 20

1954 March 1 & 2

1981 March 2 & 3

2008 February 4 & 5

1955 February 21 & 22

1982 February 22 & 23

2009 February 23 & 24

1956 February 13 & 14

1983 February 14 & 15

2010 February 15 & 16

1957 March 4 & 5

1984 March 5 & 6

2011 March 7 & 8

1958 February 17 & 18

1985 February 18 & 19

2012 February 20 & 21

1959 February 9 & 10

1986 February 10 & 11

2013 February 12&13

1960 February 29 & March 1

1987 March 2 & 3 2014 March 3&4

1961 February 13 & 14

1988 February 15 & 16

 

1962 March 5 & 6

I989 February 6 & 7

 

1963 February 25 & 26

1990 February 26 & 27

 

1964 February 10 & 11

1991 February 11 & 12

 

1965 March 1 & 2

1992 March 2 & 3

 

1966 February 21 & 22

1993 February 22 & 23

 

1967 February 6 & 7

1994 February 14 & 15

 

1968 February 26 & 27

1995 February 27 & 28

 

1969 February 17 & 18

1996 February 19 & 20

 

1970 February 9 & 10

1997 February 10 & 11

 

1971 February 22 & 23

1998 February 23 & 24

 

1972 May 1 & 2

1999 February 15 & 16

 

Please Note:

1942 - 1945 - No Carnival because of World War II.

1972 - Carnival celebrated in May because of a Polio epidemic.

CARNIVAL WINNERS 2005

CALYPSO WINNERS 2005 

COMPETITION ARTISTE COMPOSER SONG#1 SONG#2
National Calypso Monarch Mighty Chalkdust Mighty Chalkdust I In Town Too Long Ah Doh Rhyme
Road March Monarch Shurwayne Winchester Shurwayne Winchester Dead or Alive N/A
International Soca Monarch Bunji Garlin Ian Alvarez & Shawn Ainsley Noel Blaze the Fire N/A
International Female Soca Monarch Michelle Sylvester N/A Sleeping in your Bed N/A
International Groovy Soca Monarch Michelle Sylvester N/A Sleeping in your Bed N/A
Chutney Soca Monarch Heeralal Rampartap N/A Lal Rang Ghangarea Kay Paharie Run For Mih Life
Chutney Mardi Gras Monarch Rikki Jai N/A Mor Tor (Mine and Yours) N/A
NWAC Calypso Queen Monarch Abbi Blackman N/A Ah Seeing N/A
NWAC Young King Monarch Impulse Wayne Modeste Shadow Jumbie N/A
NACC Veteran Calypso Monarch Brother Valentino Emrold Phillip Where Kaiso Went N/A
NWAC Stars of Tomorrow Karene Asche Christophe Grant Mercy Mercy N/A
National Junior Calypso Monarch Shalleika Hazell Larry Harewood Barking Beef N/A
National Junior Soca Monarch Jermeeka Mundy N/A N/A N/A
TUCO Extempo King Sheldon John N/A N/A N/A
TUCO Humorous Kaiso Clifton Ryan a.k.a. The Bomber Clifton ryan Soldier B N/A
TUCO Political Commentary Heather Mac Intosh Llewellyn Mac Intosh Keith's Technique N/A
TUCO Social Commentary Karene Asche Christophe Grant Mercy Mercy N/A
TUCO Unattached Calypso Monarch Rondell Donowa Gregory Ballantyne Young Messenger N/A
South Calypso Monarch Brian London N/A Tsunami N/A
South Junior Calypso Monarch Dinessa Nelson N/A Fast Lane N/A
Couva Calypso Monarch Lady Explosion a.k.a. Sharon Harvey N/A Take Time Out N/A
Couva Extempo Monarch Henry Griffith N/A N/A N/A
Couva Junior Calypso Monarch Jenelle Conelle N/A Freedom N/A
Prisoners Calypso Monarch Vernon Trotman N/A Mr. Trotman R N/A
Most Humorous Women's Prison Calypso Monarch Estina Bedassie N/A Fast Lane N/A

MASQUERADE WINNERS 2005

COMPETITION

MINI BAND

SMALL BAND

MEDIUM BAND

LARGE BAND

George Bailey Award

  1. Blackfoot Sundance (A. Jackman & Assoc.)
  2. A Song for Minsh(Rosalind Gabriels)
  3. T&T Still Sweet for So
  1. Yuletide (D Boss)
  2. Down Mexico Way (Mt. Hope Connections)
  3. Before the Europeans(Tribal Connections)
  1. D Washing by Fire by Water
    (Brian Mac Farlane)
  2. Crossing Borders(Rampage)
  3. 'D' Barbarians (D'Midas Assoc.)
  1. Conquest of the Indies (Trini Revellers)
  2. Lion Kingdom in Soca Safari (Masquerade)
  3. We Not Giving Up (Legacy)

Lil Hart Award

  1. A Song for Minsh(Rosalind Gabriels)
  2. Blackfoot Sundance(A. Jackman & Assoc.)
  3. We Bring Back Cowpatch
  1. Yuletide (D Boss)
  2. Before Europeans (Tribal Connections)
  3. Down Mexico Way (Mt. Hope Connections)
  1. D Washing by Fire
    (Brian Mac Farlane)
  2. Crossing Borders
    (Rampage)
  3. 'D' Barbarians
    (D'Midas Assoc.)
  1. Conquest of the Indies
    (Trini Revellers)
  2. Lion Kingdom in Soca Safari
    (Masquerade)
  3. We Not Giving Up
    (Legacy)

Harold Saldenha Award

  1. Blackfoot Sundance
    (A. Jackman & Assoc.)
  2. A Song for Minsh
    (Rosalind Gabriels)
  3. T&T Still Sweet for So
  1. Yuletide (D Boss)
  2. Before Europeans 
    (Tribal Connections)
  3. Down Mexico Way
    (Mt. Hope Connections)
  1. D Washing by Fire
    (Brian Mac Farlane)
  2. Crossing Borders
    (Rampage)
  3. 'D' Barbarians
    (D'Midas Assoc.)
  1. Conquest of the Indies
    (Trini Revellers)
  2. Lion Kingdom in Soca Safari (Masquerade)
  3. We Not Giving Up
    (Legacy)

Downtown

  1. Blackfoot Sundance
    (A. Jackman & Assoc.)
  2. Song of Minsh (Rosalind Gabriels)
  3. Once Upon a Melody
    (Invasions Rampage on the Road)
  1. Yuletide (D Boss)
  2. Before the Europeans
    (Tribal Connections)
  3. Down Mexico Way
    (Mt. Hope Connections)
  1. Crossing Borders(Rampage)
  2. 'D' Barbarians (D'Midas Assoc.)
  3. Wicked (Skandal-Us)
  1. Conquest of the Indies
    (Trini Revellers)
  2. Lion Kingdom in Soca Safari (Masquerade)
  3. We Not Giving Up (Legacy)

STEELBAND WINNERS 2005

Conventional Bands(Large)

  1. Petrotrin Phase II Pan Groove, 478
  2. Sagicor Exodus, 458
  3. WITCO Desperadoes, 454.5

Single Pan (Traditional)

  1. Arima All Stars, 284
  2. La Horqueta Pan Groove, 283.5
  3. Laventille Serenaders, 276.5

Conventional Bands(Medium)

  1. CLICO Sforzata, 460
  2. Excellent Stores Silver Stars, 456.5
  3. Arima Angel Harps, 453

Junior Panorama (Secondary School)

  1. St. Augustine Senior Comprehensive, 450
  2. BP Renegades - Chris Tambu Herbert's, 446
  3. Woodbrook Government Secondary, 433

Conventional Bands(Small)

  1. Merrytones, 447
  2. Longdenville Claytones, 440.5
  3. Tamana Pioneers, 438

Junior Panorama (Primary School)

  1. Tamana Primary School Steel Workshop, 414
  2. St. Margaret's Boys Anglican Primary, 394

CARNIVAL WINNERS 2006

CALYPSO WINNERS 2006

COMPETITION

ARTISTE

COMPOSER

SONG #1

SONG #2

National Calypso Monarch

Luta

 

Check the Foundation

Kaiso, Kaiso

Road March Monarch

Patrice Roberts and Machel Montano

Kernel Roberts

Band of the Year

N/A

International Soca Monarch

Shurwayne Winchester

Shurwayne Winchester

Ah Cah Wait

N/A

International Groovy Soca Monarch

Shurwayne Winchester

Shurwayne Winchester and Shawn Noel

Don't Stop

N/A

Chutney Soca Monarch

Rooplal G.

#1 Rooplal Girdharie
#2 Rooplal Girdharie and Fazad Shageer

Dam Dam Baje

The Last Jump Up

NWAC Stars of Tomorrow Calypso Monarch and Young King Monarch

Sean Daniel

Gregory “GB“ Ballantyne

True Government

N/A

National Junior Calypso Monarch

Dareem Charles

Carlston Kerr

Dem Blimpin' Thing

N/A

International Junior Soca Monarch

Marcel Bennet

Nadia Batson

Running Red

N/A

NWAC Calypso Queen Monarch

Karene Asche

Larry Harewood

Spirit of Fear

N/A

TUCO Extempo King Sheldon John N/A

Pan from the West is the Best

N/A

TUCO Political Commentary

Luta

Morel “Luta“ Peters

Check the Foundation

N/A

TUCO Social Commentary/Unattached Monarch

Luta

Morel “Luta“ Peters

Kaiso, Kaiso

N/A

Tobago Calypso Monarch

Tobago Rio

Kenrick Andrews

At the End of the Day

Viola

People's Choice

Chalkdust

N/A

The Bandit Factory

Chalkie the Mailman

MASQUERADE WINNERS 2006

COMPETITION SMALL BAND MEDIUM BAND LARGE BAND
Band of the Year(Savannah)
  1. Taste of Hawaii (Mt. Hope Connection)
  1. Sacred Heart (Callalloo Company)
  1. Rome: The Empire (Trini Revellers)
  2. Threads of Joy (Brian MacFarlane)
  3. Atlantis: The Lost Continent (Masquerade)
Downtown
  1. Cultural Drums (Churchill “Bobo“ George
  2. Native Pride (Tribal Connection Cultural Promotion)
  3. A Taste of Hawaii (Mt. Hope Connection)
  1. Ah Quest for Glass (Stephen Derek)
  2. Fleets In (Neal and Massy Trinidad All Stars)
  3. The King and I (Rampage Mas)
  1. Threads of Joy (Brian MacFarlane)
  2. Rome: The Empire (Trini Revellers)
  3. Atlantis: The Lost Continent(Masquerade)
San Fernando
  1. A Tribal God of the Sky (Tribes)
  1. Blaze of Glory (Fireworks Promotion)
  2. Cheyenne Ceremony (Gregory Nurse)
  3. Native Spirits (Abzal Shaffie)
  1. Egypt: Land of the Pharoahs (We People Int)
  2. We Like It (Owen Hinds)
  3. SS Trinibago 3000 (Ivan Kallicharan)
       
King of Carnival (Savannah)
  1. Geraldo Vieira Sr. - The Might of Rome
  2. Roland St. George - Gladiator Demetrius
  3. Wade Madray - The Inner Man

N/A

 

N/A

Queen of Carnival (Savannah)
  1. Pamela Gordon - The Winged Jewel of the Forest
  2. Anra Bobb - De Passion of De Red Crystal
  3. Anne-Marie Quammie-Alleyne - My Love for the Caribbean Queen Valentine Medina

N/A

 

N/A

San Fernando - Masquerader of the Year: Male Leroy Prieto

N/A

 

N/A

San Fernando - Masquerader of the Year: Female Peola Marchan

N/A

N/A

San Fernando - Junior Queen of the Band Germaine Lynch

N/A

N/A

San Fernando - Junior King of the Band Brandon Guide

N/A

N/A

San Fernando - King of Jouvert Wayne Poliah (With or without feathers I still playing Indian

N/A

N/A

San Fernando - Queen of Jouvert Claire Boyce (Larger Buses on the Road)

N/A

N/A

San Fernando - Jouvert Band of the Year D Blue Boys

N/A

N/A

STEELBAND WINNERS 2006

Conventional Bands (Large)

  1. Phase II Pan Groove - 470.5 pints
  2. Neal & Massy Trinidad All Stars - 469 points
  3. PCS Starlift - 457 points

Single Pan (Traditional Pan 'Round the Neck)

  1. La Horquetta Pan Groove - 279.5 points
  2. Arima All Stars - 272.5 points
  3. Trinidad and Tobago Defence Force - 268.5

Conventional Bands (Medium)

  1. CLICO Sforzata - 469.5 points
  2. Courts Laventille Sound Specialists - 466 points
  3. HCL Valley Harps - 462 points

Junior Panorama (Secondary Schools: Under 21)

  1. St. Augustine Senior Comprehensive - 469 points
  2. Renegades Youth - 466.5 points
  3. Golden Hands - 438 points

Conventional Bands (Small)

  1. Merrytones - 440.5 points
  2. Pan Elders - 436 points
  3. Petrotrin Siparia Deltones - 427.5

Junior Panorama (Primary Schools: under 13)

  1. St. Margaret's Boys - 403 points
  2. Tamana Primary - 348 points
  3. Diego Martin Boys - 315 points

Junior Panorama (Secondary Schools: under 16)

  1. Mt. Hope Junior Secondary - 387 points
  2. Bishop Anstey Trinity College - 379 points
  3. Sangre Grande Junior Secondary - 374 points

CARNIVAL WINNERS 2007

CALYPSO WINNERS 2007

COMPETITION

ARTISTE

COMPOSER

SONG #1

SONG #2

National Calypso Monarch

Weston 'Cro Cro' Rawlins

Weston Rawlins

Nobody Ain't Go Know N/A

Road March Monarch

Machel Montano

Kernel Roberts

Jumbie

N/A

International Soca Monarch

Iwer George Iwer George Fete After Fete N/A
International Groovy Soca Monarch

Biggie Irie

 

We Nah Goin' Home N/A

Chutney Soca Monarch

Rooplal Girdharie

 

'Mera Piya' - The Love

N/A

NACC Stars of Tomorrow Calypso Monarch and Young King Monarch Roger 'Bodyguard' Mohammed

 

Ungrateful Pastor

N/A

National Junior Calypso Monarch

Tenisha Weeks

 

School Bag Dilemma

N/A

International Junior Soca Monarch

Marcel Bennet

 

On and On De Big Truck Passing

N/A

NWAC Calypso Queen Monarch

Maria Bhola

 

I Love You

N/A

TUCO Extempo King Joseph 'Lingo' Vautor-Laplaceliere

 

La Placeliere

N/A

TUCO Political Commentary

Maria Bhola Maria Bhola

I Love You

N/A

TUCO Social Commentary Monarch

Wendy Thomas Garrick

 

Another CEPEP Gang

N/A

Tobago Calypso Monarch

Sherwin 'Skee' Cunningham

 

Paradise

N/A

People's Choice

 

 

 

 

MASQUERADE WINNERS 2007

COMPETITION SMALL BAND MEDIUM BAND LARGE BAND
Band of the Year (Savannah) Nocturn Golden Heritage - A Tribute to Mas

India - The Story of Boyie

Downtown Nocturn

Amazonia

India - The Story of Boyie
San Fernando

 

From the Black Hills of Dakota

D’Stage

King of Carnival (Savannah)

Curtis Eustace

D' Wrath Of Tutankhamun

N/A
Queen of Carnival (Savannah)

Peola Marchan

The Incandescence of Beatrice Love Has Bought

N/A

San Fernando - Masquerader of the Year: Male Lionel Jagassar Jr.

'Wa Chink Sapa' - Native Healer

N/A
San Fernando - Masquerader of the Year: Female Peola Marchan The Incandescence of Beatrice Love Has Bought N/A
San Fernando - Junior Queen of the Band

 

 

 

San Fernando - Junior King of the Band

 

 

 

San Fernando - King of Jouvert

Wayne Poliah

Ah Smelt Ah Plant

N/A

San Fernando - Queen of Jouvert

Margaret Montano

Digicel Expect More Get More

N/A  
San Fernando - Jouvert Band of the Year

D Image People

Meh Pot Ah Gold

N/A

Junior Parade of the Bands It's Festival Time Wonders of the World Many Faces One Nation
Junior King of Carnival Larz Fernandez Chingathkoo The Warrior N/A
Junior Queen of Carnival Jade Alleng Ride Baby Ride - A Tribute to Errol Payne - De Jewel Peacock N/A

STEELBAND WINNERS 2007

Conventional Bands (Large)

1. Neal & Massy Trinidad All Stars

2. Phase II Pan Groove

3. Sagicor Exodus

Single Pan (Traditional Pan 'Round the Neck)

1. La Horquetta Pan Groove

2. Peake Yacht Services Pan Groove

3. Marsicans

Conventional Bands (Medium)

1. Courts Sound Specialists of Laventille

2. Excellent Stores Silver Stars

3. Clico Sforzata

Junior Panorama (Secondary Schools: Under 21)

1. St. Augustine Senior Secondary Comprehensive

2. BP Renegades Youth Steel Orchestra

3. Woodbrook Government Secondary

Conventional Bands (Small)

1. Petrotrin Siparia Deltones

2. Merrytones

3. Pan Elders

Junior Panorama (Primary Schools: under 13)

1. Diego Martin Boys' RC

2. CASAETAL Steel Orchestra

3. Grant Memorial Presbyterian

Junior Panorama (Secondary Schools: under 16)

1. St. Margaret's Boys Anglican Steel Orchestra

2. Mount Hope Junior Secondary

3. Tamana Pioneers Juniors Steel Orchestra

CARNIVAL WINNERS 2008

CALYPSO WINNERS 2008

COMPETITION

ARTISTE

COMPOSER

SONG #1

SONG #2

National Calypso Monarch

Michael Osouna, “Sugar Aloes” Michael Osouna Reflections N/A

Road March Monarch

Fay-Ann Lyons-Alvarez

Fay-Ann Lyons-Alvarez

Get On

N/A

International Soca Monarch

Ian AlvarezBunji Garlin“

Cecil Hume “Maestro“ & Ian Alvarez Fiery N/A
International Groovy Soca Monarch

Shurwayne Winchester

Shurwayne Winchester

Carnival Please Stay N/A

Chutney Soca Monarch

Rooplal Girdharie

Rooplal Girdharie

Aye Sajanee Peeya

N/A

NACC Stars of Tomorrow Calypso Monarch and Young King Monarch Patrick Purcell Lewis “Mighty Diamond“

Patrick Purcell Lewis

Crime Issues

N/A

National Junior Calypso Monarch

Megan Walrond

 

Remember Me Not

N/A

International Junior Soca Monarch

Erphan Alves (St. George's College)

 

Soca Movin' On

N/A

NWAC Calypso Queen Monarch

Monique Hector

Larry Harewood

Ssiters Looking

N/A

TUCO Extempo King

Joseph Vautor La Placeliere “Lingo“

   

N/A

TUCO Political Commentary

Karene Asche

Christopher Grant

The Recipe

N/A

TUCO Social Commentary Monarch

Dexter Parsons “The Stinger“

Dexter Parsons

Voices From the Van

N/A

TUCO Soca Chutney

Heeralal Rampertap

 

Ayee Oh

N/A

TUCO Humourous Commentary

Cuthbert George “Wizard of ID “

 

2 at 25

N/A

People's Choice

 

 

 

 

Groovy Chutney Soca Monarch

Rooplal Girdharie

 

 

 

Tobago Calypso Monarch

Leslie Ann Ellis

 

 

 

Secondary School Soca Monarch

Erphan Alves (St. George's College)

Soca Movin' On

 

 

Primary School Soca Monarch

Ferdinand Smith (Valencia South Govt)

 

 

;

MASQUERADE WINNERS 2008

COMPETITION SMALL BAND MEDIUM BAND LARGE BAND
Band of the Year (Savannah) N/A N/A Earth: Cries of Despair, Wings of Hope - Brian Mac Farlane

 

Downtown N/A

N/A

Earth: Cries of Despair, Wings of Hope - Brian Mac Farlane
San Fernando

 

 

 

King of Carnival (Savannah)

N/A

N/A

Jhawhan Thomas - Pandemic Rage (Brian Mac Farlane)
Queen of Carnival (Savannah)

N/A

Susanne Lowe - Yemaja-Orisha Goddess of the Sea (Trevor Wallace & Associates)

N/A

King of the Bands Geraldo Vieira Snr. - Night of the Iguana

N/A

N/A
Queen of the Bands

Susanne Lowe - Yemaja-Orisha Goddess of the Sea (Trevor Wallace & Associates)

N/A N/A
San Fernando - Queen of the Bands Peola Marchan - Matilda-Who Gathers the Flowers of Life and Sings its Virtues

N/A

N/A

San Fernando - King of the Bands

Owen Hinds Jr.- Jewelled Lobster

N/A

N/A

San Fernando - King of Jouvert

 

 

 

San Fernando - Queen of Jouvert

 

 

 

Jouvert Band of the Year

Aloha Hawaii - Patsy & Friends (Patricia Faltine)

N/A

N/A

Junior Parade of the Bands N/A N/A Wings of Hope - Rosalind Gabriel & Friends
Junior King of Carnival Mary Ayeun - The Sorcerer of King's Solomon's Mines N/A N/A
Junior Queen of Carnival Xia Yearwood-Garcia - Paradise In All Her Glory N/A N/A

CHILDREN'S BAND OF THE YEAR 2008

POSITION

MINI BAND

SMALL BAND

MEDIUM BAND

LARGE BAND

1st The Casbah - Christine Nunes Stamps of Paradise - Vanessa How, When and Why - Gerard Kelly Wings of Hope - Rosalind Gabriel & Friends

2nd

Pretty Maids Are Here Again - June Sankar Shaka Zulu - Leanne & Albert Bailey Romancing the Stone - Lisa Mollineau & Dune Ali In Shape - Boisiere Village Children's Band, Richie Barker
3rd Flight of Andinkrah - Roger Taylor Montano A Touch of Egypt - Agnes Alexander Colour Me - St. Dominic's Children's Home, Gregory Medina

 

BAND OF THE DAY 2008 

BAND OF THE DAY - QUEENS PARK SAVANNAH (MINI BAND)

1. “D“ Invaders from “D“ Galaxy Planet - Something Out There

2. Earth Rejoices - Rosalind Gabriel & Friends

3. Scarlet Cloud - Hener W Ramdin & Associates

BAND OF THE DAY - QUEENS PARK SAVANNAH (SMALL BAND)

1. Gathering at the Little Big Horn - Tribal Connection

2. Come Fly - Belmont Original Stylish Sailors (De B.O.S.S.)

3. A Sailor Is Ah Sailor Is Ah Sailor - Mt. Hope Connection

BAND OF THE DAY - QUEENS PARK SAVANNAH (MEDIUM BAND)

1. Bejeweled - Dream Team

2. Mas Mas Dis Is Mas - 'D' Midas T&T

3. Jamboree in New Guinea - Stampede

BAND OF THE DAY - QUEENS PARK SAVANNAH (LARGE BAND)

1. A Vision Of Timeless Beauty - Starlift Steel Orchestra

2. Que Viva Mexico - Trini Revellers

3. Earth - Cries Of Despair Wings Of Hope - Mac Farlene Carnival 2008

BAND OF THE DAY - DOWNTOWN (MINI BAND)

1. Earth Rejoices - Rosalind Gabriel & Friends

2. Scarlet Cloud - Henry W Ramdin & Associates

3. Paradise Visits Sherwood Forest - Paradise Zoof

BAND OF THE DAY-DOWNTOWN (SMALL BAND)

1. Come Fly - Belmont Original Stylish Sailors (De B.O.S.S.)

2. Gathering at the Little Big Horn - Tribal Connection

3. A Sailor Is Ah Sailor Is Ah Sailor - Mt. Hope Connection

BAND OF THE DAY-DOWNTOWN (MEDIUM BAND)

1. Mas Mas Dis Is Mas - 'D' Midas T&T

2. Caribbean Splendour - Masquerade

3. Jamboree in New Guinea - Stampede

BAND OF THE DAY - DOWNTOWN (LARGE BAND)

1. A Vision Of Timeless Beauty - Starlift Steel Orchestra

2. Earth - Cries Of Despair Wings Of Hope - Mac Farlene Carnival 2008

3. Que Viva Mexico - Trini Revellers

BAND OF THE YEAR 2008

POSITION

MACK COPELAND BAND OF THE YEAR AWARD (MINI BAND)

LIL HART BAND OF THE YEAR AWARD (SMALL BAND)

HAROLD SALDENAH BAND OF THE YEAR AWARD (MEDIUM BAND)

GEORGE BAILEY BAND OF THE YEAR AWARD (LARGE BAND)

1st Blue Devilles - Rhapsody In Blue Come Fly - Belmont Original Stylish Sailors (De B.O.S.S.) De Gulf - Ronnie & Caro - The Mas Band Earth - Cries Of Despair Wings Of Hope - Mac Farlene Carnival 2008

2nd

Scarlet Cloud - Henry W Ramdin & Associates Gathering at the Little Big Horn - Tribal Connection Mas Mas Dis Is Mas - 'D' Midas T&T Que Viva Mexico - Trini Revellers
3rd 'D' Invaders From 'D' Galaxy Planet Urea - Something Out There A Sailor Is Ah Sailor Is Ah Sailor - Mt. Hope Connection Caribbean Splendour - Masquerade Passages - Legacy

ADDITIONAL CARNIVAL RESULTS 2008

Non- School Junior Queen of Carnival - Jade Alleng- Black is Beautiful - Woman Of Colour

School Junior Queen Of Carnival - Denesha Jennings - Fiery Soucouyant Fiery

Stick-fighting Champion - Anthony Bineal

Children's Carnival 2008

Most Original Boy - Michael Mann - Soul of the Sea

Most Original Girl - Deandrea Beard - Queen Bee

Carnival Tuesday 2008

Most Outstanding Traditional Mas - Tribal Connection

Most Colourful Bands

MINI - Village People

SMALL - We-International

MEDIUM - Ronnie & Caro - D Mas Band

LARGE - Trini Revellers

STEELBAND WINNERS 2008

Conventional Bands (Large)

1. Phase II Pan Groove

2. Neal & Massy Trinidad All Stars

3. Sagicor Exodus

Single Pan (Traditional Pan 'Round the Neck)

1. La Horquetta Pan Groove

2. Marsicans

3. T&T Defence Force

Conventional Bands (Medium)

1. Courts Sound Specialists of Laventille

2. Steel Xplosion

3. CLICO Sforzata

Junior Panorama (Secondary Schools: Under 21)

1. BP Renegades Youth Steel Orchestra

2. Golden Hands

3. St. Augustine Secondary Comprehensive

Conventional Bands (Small)

1. Pan Elders

2. Arima Golden Symphony

3. Merrytones

Junior Panorama (Primary Schools: under 13)

1. St. Margaret's Boys' Anglican Primary

2. Tamana Primary Steelpan Workshop

3. CASAETAL Steel Orchestra

Junior Panorama (Secondary Schools: under 16)

1. BATCE Steel

2. Trinity College Steel Orchestra

3. St. Margaret's Boys'Steel Orchestra

CARNIVAL WINNERS 2009

CALYPSO WINNERS 2009

COMPETITION

ARTISTE

COMPOSER

SONG

National Calypso Monarch

Dr. Hollis Liverpool - (Chalkdust)

Dr. Hollis Liverpool - (Chalkdust)

My Heart and I

Road March Monarch

Fay-Ann Lyons-Alvarez

Fay-Ann Lyons-Alvarez

Meet Super Blue

International Soca Monarch

Fay-Ann Lyons-Alvarez

Fay-Ann Lyons-Alvarez

Meet Super Blue

International Groovy Soca Monarch

Fay-Ann Lyons-Alvarez

Fay-Ann Lyons-Alvarez

Heavy T Bumper

Chutney Soca Monarch

Kenneth Salick

Kenneth Salick

Rhadica Why You Leave
TUCO Extempo King

Joseph Vautor La Placeliere (Lingo)

 

 

TUCO Political Commentary

Joanne Rowley (Tigress)

 

Yuh Ent See Wajang Yet

TUCO Social Commentary Monarch

Brian London

 

A Nation's Son

TUCO Soca Chutney

Asha Kamachee (Sweetheart)

 

Yuh See

TUCO Humourous Commentary

Victor Mc Donald (Mr. Mack)

 

Cry Babies

People's Choice

Fay-Ann Lyons-Alvarez

Fay-Ann Lyons-Alvarez

Meet Super Blue

MASQUERADE WINNERS 2009

COMPETITION SMALL BAND MEDIUM BAND LARGE BAND
Band of the Year (Savannah) Empires of the Sun - D'Midas Bakkanal - Ronnie and Caro Mas Band

Africa: Her People, Her Glory, Her Tears - Brian Mac Farlane and Associates

King of Carnival(Savannah)

Curtis Eustace - Apollo’s Lust (Evolution Carnival)

 

Stephen Alexi - Ndlovu in Search (Brian Mac Farlane)

Queen of Carnival (Savannah)

Pamela Gordon - First Lady of the Chinese Court

 

Kadasfi Romney - Manzandaba in Flight (Brian Mac Farlane)

CHILDREN'S BAND OF THE YEAR 2009

POSITION

MINI BAND

SMALL BAND

MEDIUM BAND

LARGE BAND

1st Sunny - Rosemary Perkins The Rainbow Cycle - Spence Productions Hidden - Classic Productions National Pride - Rosalind Gabriel and Associates

2nd

If We Played Mas in Venice - Children of Peace

Colour Me Trinbago - Anra Bobb and Friends

Making Ends Meet - Success Laventille Composite School

Fanta Sea Sailors - Carnival Players

3rd

Fire Mas - Trinity Carnival

The Forbidden City - A Tribute to Stephen Leung - Spoilt Rotten Kids

Mama Dis Is Mas - Step by Step Promotions

It's Nature's Way - Arima Boys' R.C. School

BAND OF THE DAY 2009 

BAND OF THE DAY - QUEENS PARK SAVANNAH (MINI BAND)

1.

 

BAND OF THE DAY - QUEENS PARK SAVANNAH (SMALL BAND)

1. Tribute to a Fallen Warrior - Tribal Connection

BAND OF THE DAY - QUEENS PARK SAVANNAH (MEDIUM BAND)

1. Trinidad All Stars

BAND OF THE DAY - QUEENS PARK SAVANNAH (LARGE BAND)

1. Razzle Dazzle - PCS Starlift

BAND OF THE DAY - DOWNTOWN (MINI BAND)

1. Red Indian Days - Henry Ramdin and Associates

2. Weapons of Mas Destruction - Mystery Raisers

3. D Red Men - Village People

BAND OF THE DAY-DOWNTOWN (SMALL BAND)

1. Tribute to a Fallen Warrior - Tribal Connection

2. Our Native Land - Rosalind Gabriel and Friends

3. The Birds and the Bees - The Belmont Jewels

BAND OF THE DAY-DOWNTOWN (MEDIUM BAND)

1. Let the Music Play - Masquerade

2. Bakkanal - Ronnie and Caro - The Mas Band

3. Dance Yuh Dance - trevor Wallace Mas

BAND OF THE DAY - DOWNTOWN (LARGE BAND)

1. Africa: Her People, Her Glory, Her Tears - Brian Mac Farlane and Associates

2. Razzle Dazzle - PCS Starlift

3. Sweet T&T - A Tribute to Trinidad and Tobago - Trini Revellers

BAND OF THE YEAR 2009

POSITION

MACK COPELAND BAND OF THE YEAR AWARD (MINI BAND)

LIL HART BAND OF THE YEAR AWARD (SMALL BAND)

HAROLD SALDENAH BAND OF THE YEAR AWARD (MEDIUM BAND)

GEORGE BAILEY BAND OF THE YEAR AWARD (LARGE BAND)

1st Red Indian Days - Henry Ramdin and Associates Empires of the Sun - D'Midas Bacchanal - Ronnie and Caro Mas Band

Africa: Her People, Her Glory, Her Tears - Brian Mac Farlane and Associates

2nd

 

 

 

 

3rd

 

 

 

 

ADDITIONAL CARNIVAL RESULTS 2009

STICK FIGHTING 2009

Champion Gayelle  - Cluster Guy - Ortoire

King of the Rock - Anderson Marcano

SYNERGY TV SOCA STAR 2009

Richard Valentine (Chynee) - They Wanna Be Like

STEELBAND WINNERS 2009

Conventional Bands (Large)

1. Silver Stars - First In de Line (Edwin Pouchet/ Alvin Daniell)

2. Phase II Pan Groove - Magic Drum (Len Boogsie Sharpe/ K Roberts)

3. Trinidad All Stars - Pan Rivalry (Leon Smooth Edwards)

Single Pan (Traditional Pan 'Round the Neck)

1.

2.

3.

Conventional Bands (Medium)

1. CLICO Sforzata - Bandeleros (Miguel Reyes) 

2. NLCB Bucconers - Dangerous (Mark Loquan/ Ken Philmore)

3. Courts Sound Specialist of Laventille - D Trini Way (Mark Loquan/ Ken Philmore/ Destra Garcia)

Junior Panorama (Secondary Schools: Under 21)

1.

2.

3.

Conventional Bands (Small)

1. Arima Golden Symphony - A Blue Crescendo (De Fosto)

2. San City Steel Symphony - A Blue Crescendo (De Fosto)

3. Tornadoes - A Blue Crescendo (De Fosto)

Junior Panorama (Primary Schools: under 13)

1.

2.

3.

CARNIVAL WINNERS 2010

CALYPSO WINNERS 2010

COMPETITION

ARTISTE

COMPOSER

SONG #1

SONG #2

National Calypso Monarch

Kurt Allen   They too Bright N/A

Road March Monarch

Jason Williams and Ancil Isaac Jr. "JW and Blaze"

Kernel Roberts

Palance

N/A

bMobile Blackberry International PowerSoca Monarch

Jason Williams and Ancil Isaac Jr. "JW and Blaze

Kernel Roberts Palance N/A
Play Whe Groovy Soca Monarch

Shurwayne Winchester

 

Murdah N/A

Chutney Soca Monarch

Ravi Bissembhar "Ravi B"

 

Drinker

N/A

National Junior Calypso Monarch

Aaron Duncan - Newtown Boys RC

 

Doh Waste It

N/A

Junior King

Matthew Barnes

 

Sting in the Sand Storm - Where the Wind Blow

N/A

Kaiso Rama Extempo

Winston Peters "Gypsy"

   

N/A

Kaiso Rama Political Commentary

The Original Defosto Himself

 

In a Palace State of Mind

N/A

Kaiso Rama Social Commentary

Kizzie Ruiz

 

 

N/A

Kaiso Rama Humourous Commentary

Llewellyn MacIntosh

 

 

N/A

BAND OF THE YEAR 2010

POSITION

MACK COPELAND BAND OF THE YEAR AWARD (MINI BAND)

LIL HART BAND OF THE YEAR AWARD (SMALL BAND)

HAROLD SALDENAH BAND OF THE YEAR AWARD (MEDIUM BAND)

GEORGE BAILEY BAND OF THE YEAR AWARD (LARGE BAND)

1st Hatching Blue Devil - Rhapsody In Blue Call Dat George - D Midas T&T Tribute - Ronnie and Caro - The Mas Band Resurrection: The Mas - Mac Farlane

2nd

Path Finder - Henry Ramdin and Associates Music - De BOSS The Journey - Rosalind Gabriel and Village Production Festivals of the World - Trini Revellers
3rd Turaga -Vakama Keeper Of The Gates To The Beyond - Nakisha Mc Gillivery Pirates and Plunderers - The Belmont Jewels Call Dat George - D Midas T&T Masala - Legacy

ADDITIONAL CARNIVAL RESULTS 2010

Female Individual - Elizabeth Thomas - 'Dry Savannah'

Male Individual - Keith Tinto - 'D’ Head Hunter'

Junior Queens - A Splash of Blue - Denesha Jennings

Tobago House of Assembly’s Culture Division - Kings, Queens and Individuals Competitions

Queens - La Toya De Leon - ’Here I Am Again Flapping My Wings Before You’

Kings - Allister Williams - ’Egypt’s Realm’

STICK FIGHTING 
Gayelle - Longdenville Gayelle

King of the Rock - Evon Ralph, Talparo Gayelle

Best Kandar - Talparo Gayelle

STEELBAND WINNERS 2010

Conventional Bands (Large)

1. Silver Stars

2. PhaseII Pangroove

3. Trinidad All Stars

Conventional Bands (Small)

1. Arima Golden Symphony

2. Golden Hands

3. Merrytones

Conventional Bands (Medium)

1. Steel Xplosion

2. Courts Sound Specialists of Laventille

3. Katzenjammers

Single Pan (Traditional Pan 'Round the Neck)

1. La Horquetta Pan Groove

2. San Juan East Side Symphony

3. United Sounds

CARNIVAL WINNERS 2011

CALYPSO WINNERS 2011

COMPETITION

ARTISTE

COMPOSER

SONG #1

SONG #2

National Calypso Monarch

Karene Asche

-

Careful What You Ask For

Uncle Jack

Road March Monarch

Machel Montano

-

Advantage

N/A

International Soca Monarch

Machel Montano

-

Advantage

N/A
International Groovy Soca Monarch

Kees Diffentahller

-

Wotless N/A

Chutney Soca Monarch

Samraj 'Rikki Jai' Jaimungal

-

White Oak and Water

N/A
TUCO National Junior Calypso Monarch

Aaron Duncan - Newton Boys R.C. School

-

Kaiso Alive

N/A
Calypso Young Kings

Rodney 'Benjai' LeBlanc

 -

Trini

N/A

NWAC Calypso Queen

Heather McIntosh

 -

Keep It

N/A

MASQUERADE WINNERS 2011

COMPETITION  
King of Carnival

Wade Madray - Pacific Tsunami

Queen of Carnival

Peola Marchand - D Jewel Chandelier

BAND OF THE YEAR 2011

POSITION

MACK COPELAND BAND OF THE YEAR AWARD (MINI BAND)

LIL HART BAND OF THE YEAR AWARD (SMALL BAND)

HAROLD SALDENAH BAND OF THE YEAR AWARD (MEDIUM BAND)

GEORGE BAILEY BAND OF THE YEAR AWARD (LARGE BAND)

1st Play De Mas - The Original Jab Jab Beauty Beneath The Sea - Belmont Original Sylish Sailors Survivors - Ronnie & Caro, The Mas Band

Humanity-Circle of Life - Mac Farlane Carnival

2nd

Son Of A Watless - 2001 Jab Malassie

Gathering Of The First People - Tribal Connection

Village Life - Rosalind Gabriel and Village Productions

Tales of Merrie Olde England - Trini Revellers

3rd

Indians Are Coming - Village People

Greece, The Legacy - The Belmont Jewels

D Latin Flava - D Harvard Revellers Inc Ltd

South Pacific - Legacy

ADDITIONAL CARNIVAL RESULTS 2011

JOUVERT 2011

King  - Lennox Joseph - His Last Brother - T&T's Strongest Man

Queen - Helen Fullard - Why Camla Stop Drinking

STEELBAND WINNERS 2011

Conventional Bands (Large)

1. Neal and Massy Trinidad All Stars

2. Sagicor Exodus

3. PCS Silver Stars

Conventional Bands (Medium)

1. Katezenjammers and Valley Harps

2. N/A

3. NLCB Buccooneers

CARNIVAL GLOSSARY

Baby Doll
The Baby Doll is a traditional carnival character depicting a masked woman holding a doll, in imitation of a new mother. She would accost any male spectator as being the delinquent father, with demands for money to buy 'baby milk'.

Bacchanal
Bacchanal denotes the merry-making and noisy confusion of those engaged in any carnival activity.

Badjohn
A badjohn was a thug, notorious for their fearlessness in fights. They were intimately associated with the early steelbands as both henchmen, supporters and panmen.

Band 
See Carnival Band.

Bat mas
The Bat is a traditional Carnival masquerade, imitating in costume this winged mammal.

Batille bois
See Kalinda.

Bâtonniers
Bâtonnier is French for a stick-fighter.

Big Yard
See Savannah.

Blue Devil
A blue devil is a carnival masquerader caked in mud and painted blue depicting the Devil. Wearing horns, he or she drools a red blood-like substance, carries chains and pitchforks and blows flame through a flambeaux.

Bois
Bois is French for ‘wood’, this refers to the cudgel or stick used in combat by bâtonniers or stick-fighters. The wood used may come from the Poui tree.

Bookman
A Bookman is a traditional depiction of the Devil having a list of those condemned to Hell. Carrying his book he is masked, wears an over-sized hat, sequined gown and may carry a pitchfork.

Bottle and Spoon
A ‘bottle and spoon’, refers to the musical effect of a glass bottle being struck with a metal spoon. The perfomance may be solo or as a musical accompaniment. It is a common element in the engine room of a steelband.

Burrokeet
A burrokeet is a traditional carnival character, whose costume is that of a donkey. Derived from the Spanish burroquito for ‘donkey’.

Calenda, Calinda
See Kalinda.

Calypso, kaiso
Calypso is the folk song of Trinidad it is a medium for social criticism, commentary and parody .

Calypso Monarch
The calypso monarch is the winner of the National Carnival Commission’s Calypso competition. This event is held on the evening of Dimanche Gras in the Queen's Park Savannah.

Calypsonians, kaisonian
Also known as a kaisonian, a calypsonian is a singer of the calypso artform.

Canboulay
Canboulay is the street procession held in the post-emacipation era and the predecessor of carnival celebrations. It involved era re-enactment of négue jardins or field slaves being mustered to extinguish fires in sugarcane plantations.

Carnival
Trinidad Carnival is the annual two-day festival held before the observance of Lent. It features street processions of costumed masqueraders as well as showcasing highlights of calypso and steelband music.

Carnival Band
A Carnival band consists of costumed individuals organized under a given theme. Varying in size it may have as many as 3,000 paid members.

Carnival Development Commitee,CDC
The Carnival Development Committee is the forerunner to the present- day National Carnival Commission. This body was responsible for organizing carnival events.

Chantwell/ chantrel/ chantuelle
In the era up to the 1930s a ‘chantwell’ was the lead singer who led a carnival band and sang its theme song. His role has now evolved into the present day calypsonian.

Chipping
The slow mincing shuffle of carnival revellers following the rhythm of music from a mobile steelband or disc-jockey.

Chutney soca
Chutney Soca is a lively musical beat, derived from the fusion of East Indian and Soca accompanied by a female dancer.

Commess
Commess is Trinidad dialect for controversy, confusion or bacchanal.

Cow band
The cow mas is a traditional carnival character doing the costumed imitation of a cow.

Dame Lorraine
The ‘dame lorraine’ is a traditional carnival character lampooning the wives of plantation owners. She is depicted as a parasol-carrying woman in flowered dress and hat. Her bust and derriere being grossly exaggerated.

Dimanche Gras
French for ' Grand Sunday' or 'Fat Sunday': Dimanche Gras is the Sunday before Carnival Monday. The Calypso Monarch Competition and the Carnival King and Queen Costume competition are held in the Savannah on Dimache Gras night.

Dragon
The dragon is a traditional carnival depiction of a scaly colourful dragon.

Engine room
The percussion section of a Steelband which provides the timing for the musical rhythm.

Extempo
Extempo refers to the spontaneous composition of rhyming stanzas on the spur of the moment. This is usually done without instruments ending with the refrain ‘sans humanite’.

Fatigue
Fatigue is heckling or jesting humour.

Fete
A fete is a party with music, dancing, eating and drinking.

Flag Woman
The Flag Woman performs an enthusiastic flag-waving dance during the live performance of her steelband. This energetic task was formerly performed by a male.

Flambeaux
A Flambeaux is a torch made using a glass bottle, kerosene and old rags.

Fresh water Yankee
A ‘fresh water yankee’ is a term used to describe a Trinbagonian who has an American accent, usually from a short stay abroad.

Gallery
To ‘gallery’ is to show off.

Gayelle
A gayelle is the arena used for staging a kalinda or stickfight.

Iron man
The 'iron man' is the virtuoso percussionist in the engine room of the steelband. His enthusiastic rhythmic pounding of metal provides timing for the steelband musicians.

Jamette
Jamette derived from the French diameter or diameter referred to members of half of society, below the accepted standard of conduct.

Jouvert/ J'ouvert/ Jouvert/ Jourvert/ Jour ouvert
Jouvert is derived from French patois and means ‘daybreak’. Jouvert marks the official start of the two day carnival celebrations, it officially commences at 4:00 a.m. on Carnival Monday.

Ju-Ju Warrior
The Ju-Ju warrior is a traditional masquerade depicting spear-carrying African warriors.

Kaiso
Kaiso is the original name for calypso. See Calypso

Kalinda,Calenda, Calinda
The Kalinda is the still popular ritualized stick-fighting artform. Held within a gayelle it features duels between two men armed with wooden sticks amidst singing and drumming.

Las' Lap
Las' lap refers to the dancing and revelry during the last hours of carnival.

Lavway
Lavway is French patois for ‘the voice’ or ‘the truth’. In origin it was the call and response chants of the stickfight. Its rhythmn was assimilated into calypso.

Lime
A lime is any informal socializing and/or recreation in a relaxed environment.

Mamaguy
Mamaguy is Trinidad dialect for deception by means of flattery.

Matador
Matadors were women attendants to the stickfighters. Attached to specific stickfighters in the gayelle they carried baskets of food and drink as well as bandages.

Minstrel
A traditional carnival character: depicted is a minstrel of the 19th century American era. With white painted faced, cardboard boater hat and clothes of that persona, the character sings while strumming a banjo.

Mud mas
'Mud mas' refers to masqueraders on carnival jourvert morning, who plaster their clothes and body with mud.

NCBA
The NCBA is the 'National Carnival Bandleaders' Assocation' which has been engaged since its formation in 1958 in improving the artistry of Carnival for national benefit. In addition to bandleaders, its membership encompasses all those engaged in Carnival activities from costume builders, designers and craftsmen to individual masqueraders.

NCC
NCC is the National Carnival Commision, the official body engaged to promote carnival activities, events and its associated artforms.

North Stand
The stands on the northern side of the stage at the Queen's Park Savannah favoured by the less inhibited, and sometimes more unruly audience because of its bacchanal atmosphere.

Ole mas
Ole mas is the abbreviation for 'Old Masquerade'. It refers either to the 'mud mas' on Jouvert morning, or the witty street satire of lampooning popular personalities or issues through placards and odd costumes.

Pan Trinbago
Pan Trinbago is the official body which represents the interests of the steelband movement.

Panorama
Held since 1963, Panorama is the premiere steelband competition of the carnival season.

Patois
Patois is a dialect of the French language.

Picong
Picong is derived from the French "piquant', which means spicy. It refers to a humourous verbal duel done in verse between two calypsonians. The winner is determined by the humourous impact of improvised witty responses.

Ping Pong
The Ping Pong is another name for the tenor pan especially in the early stages of its development.

Ramajay
To ramajay is to improvise on a given tune in competition with other pannists.

Saga Boy
A saga boy is a flashy dressed dandy, or ladies’man.

Sans Humanitê
A French term meaning 'without mercy'. It was a standard rhetorical phrase inserted at the end of early 20th. century calypso choruses.

Savannah
The Queen's Park Savannah, also called the Big Yard, is the venue for judging the main events of carnival: Panorama, Parade of the Bands and Dimanche Gras. Located in Port-of-Spain it is approximately 199 acres in area.

Soca
Soca is the musical artform emerging from calypso in the late 1970's. The late Ras Shorty I is credited for its creation, who defined soca as the "soul of calypso".

Steel Pan
The steel pan is the national instrument of Trinidad and Tobago. Made from discarded oil drums, it is the only musical instrument invented in the 20th century.

Steelband
A steelband or steel orchestra is a musical ensemble comprised mainly of variously tuned steel pans supported by other musical instruments. Steelbands are known either as traditional or conventional steelbands.

Stickfight
See Kalinda.

Tabanca
In Trinidad dialect tabanca refers to depression resulting from a broken romance.

Tamboo Bamboo
From the French: 'Tambour' for drum, The musical instrument made from bamboo tubes used in Carnival during the period 1884 to the 1930s before the invention of the Steel Pan.

Tan Tan
In Trinidad dialect.‘tan tan’ is another word for aunt .

TNT
See Trinbago.

Trinbago
Trinbago is an abbreviation for the twin island republic of Trinidad and Tobago.

Viey la cou
Viey la cou is French Patois for old courtyard, so called either because it was the area for rehearsal of the characters in Traditional mas.

Wine
No relation to the alcoholic liquor, a ‘wine' is a sultry dance movement of gyrations of the pelvis.

Wine and Jam
‘Wine and jam’ refers to rapid gyrations of the hips, together with forward and backward thrusts of the pelvic region. It also describes soca and calypso music with lyrical incitations to that effect.