The Caribbean Advanced Proficiency Examination (CAPE)  Geography syllabus comprises two Units each with three compulsory Modules. According to CXC, each Module will require at least 50 hours of teaching and study time. Each Unit consists of a physical, human and integrated component that forms a coherent course of study. Units with accompanying Modules and Sub-titles for CAPE Geography are detailed as follows:


UNIT 1.  Population Geography, Geomorphic Processes and Hazards

 Module 1 – Population and Settlement

 Module 2 – Hydrological, Fluvial, Coastal and Limestone Environments

 Module 3 – Natural Events and Hazards


UNIT 2.  Climate, Economic Activity and Development

 Module 1 – Climate, Vegetation and Soils

 Module 2 – Economic Activity

 Module 3 – Development and Disparities in Development


The syllabus generally aims to:

  • Develop an understanding of the location and distribution of geographic phenomena
  • Develop an understanding of the nature of Physical and Human Geography and their interactions
  • Explain the processes at work in Physical and Human Geography
  • Develop an understanding of the environmental consequences of human action
  • Develop an appreciation of the current social and economic problems in their geographical setting
  • Encourage an appreciation of the dynamic nature of Geography; CXC A21 2 /U2/09
  • Help in the understanding and application of spatial models and concepts to the study of Geography
  • Develop an understanding of the range of techniques, the acquisition of practical skills, and an   appreciation of information technology that enhance geographical knowledge
  • Create awareness of the variety of Caribbean environments through field activities
  • Promote knowledge and understanding of World Geography
  • Develop an understanding of the place of the Caribbean in the wider world
  • Encourage a critical and reflective approach to the study of Geography


NOTE: The student pursuing this course of study learns about the physical features of the earth and how it is impacted on by human activity. They gain an understanding of and the ability to appreciate how physical and human forces interact to give identity to places as well as an understanding of the causal relationships at different geographic scales – local, regional and global. They gain knowledge about the central issues emerging from human exploitation of natural resources and develop an awareness of the importance of living in harmony with the environment. Such a course will provide such persons with the integrative and graphical skills required in working situations where they are important.

CAPE Geography will cultivate in students an appreciation of the complexity and inter-relatedness of the environment in the Caribbean and the wider world. It will deepen their interest in geographical knowledge and skills attained will enable them to pursue higher education goals. CAPE Geography will also create in students an informed respect for cultural heritage, an understanding of the need for the sustainable use of resources and the consequences of their misuse.








Factors Affecting Population Distribution


  • Chapter 2. Spatial Distribution and Density of Population

  • IB DP Geography. Factors Affecting Population Geography (Global Scale)

  • Geological Statistics Analysis of Population Distribution at Township Level in Henan Province, China

  • Global Population Distribution Analysis


  • Population Density and Distribution: an Introduction; Exploration and Application [SLIDES]

  • Population Distribution and Density: Global to local/ Spatial Variations with Countries at Varying Stages of Development [SLIDES]

  • Population 2. Natural population Change Intro [SLIDES]


  • Geography MYP/ GCSE/ DP. Physical and Human Factors affecting Population Distribution

  • iGCSE Internet Geography.  What Factors affect Population Density and Distribution?

  • Geography: Learn on the Internet- Population Geography

  • Changing Population. 1. Population and Economic Development Patterns- How Population Varies between Places

  • IB Geography at YIS. Core 1: Part 1. Population and Economic Development Patterns. Part 1: IB Outcome: Physical and Human Factors affecting Population distribution at the Global Scale

  • Physical and Human Factors Affecting Population Distribution at the Global Scale

  • Population Distribution. Objective: To Explain the Physical and Human Factors affecting Population Distribution at the Global Scale


  • Describe and Explain the Physical and Human Factors affecting Population Distribution


  • Factors affecting Population Distribution at a Global Scale

  • United Nations. Population


  • Determining Global Population Distribution: Methods, Applications and Data/ D.L. Balk and others, in, Advances in Parasitology, Volume 62, 2006; pp. 119-156. Retrieved from:


  • National Academies Press. The Growth of World Population: Analysis of the Problems and Recommendations for Research and Training. Chapter 6: Social Factors


Case Studies: Factors Affecting Population Distribution at the Local and Regional Scale


  • Geography MYP/ GCSE/ DP. Uneven Population Distribution: Case Study 1. China

  • Geography MYP/ GCSE/ DP. Uneven Population Distribution: Case Study 2. Niger

  • IB DP Geography. Population and Economic Development Patterns

  • Topic 4. (1.4): Population Density and Distribution


  • IGCSE Geography. 4. Population Density and Distribution. Factors affecting the Density and Distribution. Case Studies: Singapore-Densely populated. Sahel- Sparsely populated [SLIDES]


  • Scientific Data. Analysis: The Impact of new Transport Modes on Population Distribution on Jing-Jin-Ji Region of China/ Lizhe Wang & Lajiao Chen

  • Population Control in Barbados

  • Socio-demographic Vulnerability in the Caribbean: an Examination of the Social and Demographic Impediments to Equitable Development and Participatory Citizenship in the Caribbean at the dawn of the 21st Century/ Dennis A. V. Brown

  • Rural Employment and Rural Development in the Caribbean/ Theresa Ann Rajack-Talley

  • Topic. Indian Ocean- Factors Influencing Migration and Population Movements- Part 1


  • GEO for CXC. Case Study-Dominica

  • GEO for CXC. Case Study-Jamaica

  • PEW Research Centre. Demographic Study- The Future of World Religions: Population Growth Projections, 2010 – 2050. Chapter 1. Main Factors Driving Population Growth


Methods of Depicting Population Distribution - Dot, Lorenz Curves


  • Methods of Studying Population Distribution

  • New Perspectives for Mapping Global Population Distribution Using World Settlement Footprint Products/ Daniela Palacios-Lopez and others.

  • Graphical Representation of Data 3


  • WorldPop Methods

  • Demographics. These 5 Maps Visualize Population Distribution in a Unique Way

  • Dot Distribution Map

  • PennState Dept. of Geography. GEOG 160: Mapping Our Changing World. 3.2: Thematic Maps

  • The Physical Environment. Essentials of Geography: Tools of the Geographer- Maps

  • Western Geographic Science Centre. Dasymetric Mapping

  • Barcelona Field Studies Centre. Choropleth Maps


  • Caribbean Handbook on Risk Information Management. 5.3. Population Distribution Maps


  • Gini Coefficient and Lorenz Curve


  • Estimating the empirical Lorenz curve and Gini coefficient in the presence of error with nested data/ Chaya S. Moskowitz and others, in, Statistics in Medicine, Volume 27 Issue 16, July 2008; pp 3191-3208. Retrieved from:


The Merits and Demerits of the Methods of Depicting Population Distribution


  • Geographic Information Technology Training Alliance. Choropleth Maps

  • Geographic Information Technology Training Alliance. Dot Maps

  • GIS Geography. Dot Distribution vs Graduated Symbols vs Proportional Symbol Maps

  • Dot Density Map


  • Limitations of Using the Lorenz Curve Framework to Understand the Distribution of Population Viral Load/ Alexander C. Tsai, in, AIDS, Volume 31 Issue 5, March 2017; pp. 742. Retrieved from:




Factors Influencing Birth Rate, Death Rate, Natural Increase, Fertility Rate, Life Expectancy, Doubling Time


  • PBR. Human Population- Lesson Plans

  • Amazing World of Science with Mr. Green. Topic 8.1: Human Populations Dynamics

  • The Floating University Video Quiz.

  • ​IGCSE Online Courses. Revision Notes- Factors affecting the Population

  • Chapter 18. Lesson 10. What affects Birth and Fertility Rates?

  • PEW Research Centre. Demographic Study. The Future of World Religions: Population Growth Projections, 2010-2050. Chapter 1: Main Factors Driving Population Growth

  • Chapter 4. Lesson 3. Causes of Death: Determinants of Mortality and Mortality Rates

  • Kullabs. Grade 10: Demography. Factors Affecting Death

  • Boundless Sociology. Population and Urbanization: Population Growth

  • Chapter 10. Lesson 1. The Human Population: Factors that Affect Population Size

  • OpenLearn. How Fertility Rates affect Population

  • ThoughtCo. Geography-Humanities. What is Doubling-Time in Geography?,can%20also%20vary%20over%20time.

  • Chapter 11. Lesson 3. Doubling-Time: Definition and Calculation


  • Glossary of Demographic Terms

  • Bitesize. National 5. Population, Distribution, Growth & Change

  • Factors affecting Populations

  • 4 Contributing Factors to Declining Fertility Rates: a Global Overview

  • Sociology Discussion. Mortality: Factors affecting and Causes of Decline

  • Geography AS Notes. Mortality Rates

  • Economics Help. Factors that affect Population Size and Growth

  • Insider. These 12 amazing Graphics show how Populations have changed around the World

  • Internet Geography. Geotopics- Population 1

  • Internet Geography. Geotopics- Population 2: Population Issues

  • iGCSE Internet Geography. Natural Population Change

  • What is Rate of Natural Increase (RNI)?

  • What is Doubling-Time and how is it Calculated?

  • World Population Growth

  • Rule of 70 Definition

  • Max Roser (2013). "Future Population Growth". Published online at Retrieved from:  


  • Human Population Growth


  • 5. The Consequences of Rapid Population Growth

  • Population Growth Rate

  • Some Causes of Fertility Rates Movements (Research Paper)/ Claire Norville and others

An Examination of Factors Affecting Fertility Rate Differentials as Compared Among Women in Less and More Developed Countries (Article)/ Ashraf Ragab El-Ghannam

  • Female Education and Its Impact on Fertility

  • Factors effecting Life Expectancy in Developed and Developing Countries of the world (An approach to Available Literature)


  • Declining Birth Rate in Developed Countries: A Radical Policy Re-think is required/ G. Nargund, in, Facts, Views & Vision: Issues in Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Health,  Volume 3 Issue 1 (2009); pp. 191-193. Retrieved from:

  • The Effects of Mortality on Fertility: Population Dynamics after a Natural Disaster/ Jenna Nobles and others, in, Demography, Volume 52 Issue 1 (2015); pp. 15-38. Retrieved from:

  • The Human Population: Size and Dynamics / Anne H. Ehrlich in, American Zoologist, Volume 25, Issue 2 (May 1985); pp. 395–406. Retrieved from:

  • How Government Policies Influence Declining Fertility Rates in Developed Countries/ Tari Glowaki and others, in, Middle States Geographer, Volume 40 (2007); pp. 32-38. Retrieved from:

  • Impact of Socio-Health Factors on Life Expectancy in the Low and Lower Middle Income Countries/ Md. Nazrul islam Mondal & Mahendran Shitan, in, Iran Journal of Public Health, Volume 42 Issue 12 (2013); pp. 1354-1362. Retrieved from:


  • Population Reference Bureau’s Population Handbook. 4th International Edition.


  • Find the Doubling-Time of Exponential Growth


The Demographic Transition Model and its Applicability to the Experiences of Developed and Developing Countries


  • The Demographic Transition

  • What is the Demographic Transition Model?

  • Barcelona Field Studies Centre. Demographic Transition Model

  • Demographic Transition Model

  • Demographic Transition

  • The Challenges of the End of the Demographic Transition



  • Geography Study Notes. The Demographic Transition Model (DTM)

  • Geography MYP/ GCSE/ DP. Demographic Transition

  • Geography MYP/ GCSE/ DP. Demographic Transition Model

  • MCDB 150: Global Problems of Population Growth. Lecture 14. Demographic Transition in Developing Countries


  • Demographic Transition

  • The Demographic Transition Model

  • Animation of the Demographic Transition Model and Population Growth & Decline


  • Demographic Transition and Education in Developing Countries (Article)/ A.V. Goujon

  • Demographic Transition and Demographic Dividends in Developed and Developing Countries (Research Article)/ Andrew Mason

  • Quantifying the Effects of the Demographic Transition in Developing Economies (Research Paper)/ Orazio Attanasio and others

  • Economic and Social Implications of Demographic Transition (Article)/ David S. Reher

  • Demographic Transition and Education in Developing Countries (Article)/ A.V. Goujon

  • The Demographic Transition

Lee, Ronald (2003). The Demographic Transition: Three Centuries of Fundamental Change

  • World Bank Global Monitoring Report 2015. Part II. Development of an Era of Demographic Change

  • The Causes and Consequences of Demographic Transition/ David Canning


  • Social Science LibreTexts. 17.2E. Demographic Transition Theory

  • Demographic Transition and its Consequences / Ronald D. Lee & David S. Reher (Editors)


  • Population Momentum across the Demographic Transition/ Laura Blue and Thomas J. Espenshade, in, Population Development Review, Volume 37 Issue 4 (2011); pp. 721-747. Retrieved from:


Population Policy: Case Studies of Pro-natalist and Anti-natalist Policies


  • Bitesize. GCSE. Managing Population Change- Case Study of Pro-natalist Policy: France

  • Quebec’s Alternative to Pro-natalism

  • Institute for Family Studies. Pro-natal Policies work, but they come with a hefty Price Tag


  • IB DP Geopraphy. 004- Pro and Anti-natalist Policies

  • IB Core. Populations in Transition

  • IB GEO Units. 3. Challenges & Opportunities: Population Possibility and Power over the Decision-making Process


  • Fertility and the Family: An Overview of Pro-natalist Population Policies in Singapore (Research Paper)/ Theresa Wong and Brenda S.A. Yeoh

  • Formulating Population Policy: A Case Study of the United States (Article)/ Rebecca J. Cook

  • Centre for Reproductive Rights. Rethinking Population Policies: a Reproductive Rights Framework (Briefing Paper)

  • Pro-natalist Policies/ David Wood

  • Fertility and Population Policy (Article) / Abdoulaye Ouedraogo and others

  • From Anit-natalist to Ultra Conservative: Restricting Reproductive Choice in Peru (Article)/ Anna-Britt Coe


  • Pro versus Anti-natalist Policies in Countries around the World


  • A New Method of Identifying Target Groups for Pro-natalist Policy applied to Australia/ Mengni Chen and others, in, PLOS ONE Online Journal 2018. Retrieved from:


  • Ultra-low Fertility in Pacific Asia: Trends, Causes and Policy Issues. Pages 1-22: Very Low Fertility in Pacific Asian Countries: Causes and Policy Responses/ Gavin Jones and others




Types of Migration


  • Migration: Types and reasons,%20%20%C4%AFvadinis%20pratimas.pdf

  • Living Review of Landscape Research: 4. Types of Migration (Article)/ Simon Bell and others

  • Types of Migration

  • International Migration Law. Glossary on Migration

  • Types of Migration: the Motivations, Composition, and Early Integration Patterns of ‘New Migrants’ in Europe (Article)/ Renee Luthra and others

  • Internal and International Migration: Bridging the Theoretical Divide (Research Paper)/ Russell King and others


  • Drivers of Migration: Why do People Move? / Francesco Castelli in Journal of Travel Medicine, Volume 25, Issue 1 (2018). Retrieved from:


  • National Geographic Resource Library. Activity 1. Introduction to Human Migration

  • eSchoolToday. Your Cool facts and Tips on- Migration: Forms of Migration


  • Internet Geography. What are the Main Types of Migration?

  • InternetGeography. Geotopics: Migration

  • National Geographic Xpeditions. Human Migration Guide(6-8): What is Human Migration?


  • Why do People Migrate? The 4 Most Common Types of Migration

  • Sociology Discussion. Migration; Meaning, Types and Effects

  • United Nations. Migration


  • World Atlas. The Different Types of Human Migration


Causes and Consequences to Source (sending) and Host (receiving) Countries- Case Studies


  • GEO Factsheet No. 89. Migration Case Studies

  • OECD Development Centre. Working Paper No. 250. Effects of Migration on Sending Countries: What Do We Know? / Louka T. Katseli and others.

  • World Economic Forum. Migration and Its Impact on Cities. (2017 Report)

  • Caribbean Expert Group Meeting on Human Rights and Development in the Caribbean 2005. Migration in the Caribbean: What do We Know?

  • Institute of Development Studies. The Effects Economic Integration of Migrants have on the Economy of Host Countries. HelpDesk Report (K4D, 2019)

  • The Effects of Immigration in Developed Countries: Insights from Recent Economic Research / Anthony Edo and others. CEPII Policy Brief No. 22, April 2018. Retrieved from:

  • Economic and Social Effects of Migration on Sending Countries: The Cases of Albania and Bulgaria / Eugenia Markova

  • 2017 MEDAM Assessment Report. Chapter 4: A Country-of-Origin Perspective: Migration decisions, Development assistance, and How Migrants Help to Shape Values at Home

  • How Immigrants Contribute to Developing Countries’ Economies

  • Benefitting from immigration: The value of Immigrants’ Country Knowledge for Firm Internationalization

  • Language learning in the context of Migration and Integration – Challenges and Options for Adult Learners Verena PLUTZAR and Monika RITTER, Vienna

  • KNOMAD Working Paper No.1. April 2014.The Effect of Low-skilled Labor Migration on the Host Economy/ Uri Dadush


  • International Organizaton for Migration (IOM). Working Papers on Migration No. 1, 2017. Migration in the Caribbean: Current trends, Opportunities and Challenges


  • International Labour Migrants: Unsung Heroes of Globalisation / by Bhargavi Ramamurthy. (Sida Studies No. 8.)


  • Migratory Patterns in the Caribbean: Impacts and Perspectives for Caribbean Countries

  • India-UK Migration: A Case Study

  • Opportunities and Challenges of International Migration for Sending and Receiving Countries


  • Bringing Happiness into the Study of Migration and its Consequences: What, Why, and How? / Martijn Hendriks and David Bartram, in, Journal of Integration and Refugee Studies, Volume17 Issue 3 (2019); pp. 279-298. Retrieved from:


Calculation of Population Growth Rates and Construction of Flow Lines


  • How to Calculate Population Projections

  • Calculating Population Growth

  • How Populations Grow: the Exponential and Logistic Equations

  • Visualizing Population Migration by Where People Filed their Taxes

  • GIS Geography. How to Create Flow Maps and Link Movement with Direction Lines

  • GIS Lounge. Overview of Flow Mapping


  • Population Growth- An Introduction,terms%2C%20just%20multiply%20by%20100.&text=the%20population%20is%20so%20much%20bigger%2C%20many%20more%20individuals%20are%20added.

  • Planning Analysis: Calculating Growth Rates

  • Chapter 19. Lesson 4. Population Growth Rate: Definition, Formula and Examples

  • Socratic Q&A. Environmental Science. Topics: How do you Calculate Population Growth?

  • Bitesize. GCSE Edexcel. Graphical Skills

  • Cartography: Flow-line Map

  • Bitesize. National 5. Data Shown on Maps


  • Geographic Information Systems. How do I Create a Flow-Line Map for my Data?

  • The Data Visualisation Catalogue. Flow Map


  • Population Growth Rate Calculation/ Tom Koch

  • Population Growth Rate based on Birth and Death Rates

  • Per Capita Population Growth and Exponential Growth

  • How to make a Flow-line map

  • Analysing a Flow-line map

  • Microsoft Office: How to make Flow-line Maps


  • Geographical Skills: Flow Line Maps [SLIDES]


  • Geographical Enquiries: Skills and Techniques for Geography/ By Garrett Nagle, Kris Spence

  • Basic Hydrogeologic Methods: A Field and Laboratory Manual with ...  / By Frank Fletcher


  • Flow Map Layout (Article) / Doantam Phan and others





Associated Concepts- Hydrological Cycle; River Basin


  • Chapter 14. Lesson 10.The Hydrological Cycle: Definition, Process and Diagrams

  • Socratic Q&A. Environmental Science. What is the Hydrological Cycle?

  • Bitesize. Higher. The Global Hydrological Cycle

  • Penn-State College of Earth and Mineral Sciences. METEO 3. Introductory Meteorology. The Hydrologic Cycle- Lesson 4: The Role of Water in Weather

  • Freshwater Inflows: the Hydrologic Cycle

  • Importance of Freshwater: Explain the Value and Importance of Freshwater?


  • Bitesize. Higher. Hydrological Cycle within a Drainage Basin

  • A Level Geography. The Drainage Basin Hydrological Cycle

  • A Level Geography. Erosion, Transportation and Deposition & the Hjulstrom Curve


  • Description of the Hydrological Cycle

  • A summary of the Hydrological Cycle

  • The Hydrological Cycle (Water Cycle)

  • Hydrological Cycle

  • Northwest River Forecast Centre. Hydrologic Cycle: Description of the Hydrologic Cycle

  • Common Hydrological Terms

  • The Drainage Basin Hydrological Cycle

  • What is the Hydrologic Cycle?

  • Basin Hydrology

  • Hydrological Processes within a River Basin

  • USGS. Science in your Watershed. Glossary

  • Drainage Basins & the Hydrological Cycle

  • The Drainage Basin


  • Chapter 4. The Ocean’s Role in the Hydrological Cycle


  • The Water (Hydrological) Cycle

  • Drainage Basin Hydrological Cycle


  • Hydrology for the Water Management of Large River Basins/ H.J. Liebscher, in, Hydrological Sciences Journal, Volume 38 Issue 1 (1993); pp. 1-13. Retrieved from:


Major Flows and Factors influencing Flows within the Hydrological Cycle


  • Factors affecting the Hydrological Cycle: Flashcards Preview

  • Tutor2U Geography. Study Notes: How does the Water Cycle change over time?

  • Environmental Geology- GEOL 406/506. Surface Water: Process, Supply and Use Module 7. Part 1


  • PennState College. METEO 3 Introductory Meteorology. The Hydrologic Cycle

  • Human Influences on the Water Cycle


  • Surface Runoff and the Water Cycle

  • Module 1. Hydrologic Cycle

  • Chapter 1. The Hydrological Cycle

  • Influences on the Water Cycle

  • The Effects of Changes in the World Hydrological Cycle on availability of Water Resources


  • Water Cycle

  • The Water Cycle

  • Infiltration and the Water Cycle

  • Geography 327. Hydrology: Interception

  • Natural processes of Ground-Water and Surface-Water Interaction. The Hydrological Cycle and Interactions of Ground-Water and Surface-Water

  • Hydrology, Soil Architecture and Water Movement

  • Effects of Climate Change on the Hydrological Cycle in Central and Eastern Europe

  • Factors affecting the Water Cycle

  • Vicaire. Module 1A. Chapter 5: Infiltration

  • The Water Cycle

  • Modelling the Global Water Cycle


  • Chapter 2. The Hydrological Cycle

  • The Role of Interception in the Hydrological Cycle

  • Introduction to Hydrology

  • The Role of Interception in the Hydrological Cycle/ Miriam Gerrits

  • Chapter 4. Water Relations and Hydrologic Cycles/ R.H. Warring and others

  • Chapter 4. Hydrology and Water Resources

  • Effects of Human Activities on Hydrological Components in the Yiluo River Basin in Middle Yellow River/ Xiujie Wang and others

  • The Hydrological Cycle and the Human Impact on it

  • How Urbanization affects the Water Cycle

  • Chapter 8.1. Factors affecting Runoff Nutrient Losses$department/deptdocs.nsf/all/epw11920/$FILE/8-1.pdf

  • Long-Term Changes of Hydrological Variables in a Small Lowland Watershed in Central Poland / Adam Krajewski and others

  • Drainage Basins as Open Systems

  • Hydrological Drought Explained

  • Manual on Low Flow Estimation and Prediction


  • The effects of Tree Characteristics on Rainfall Interception in Urban Areas/ Byungsun Yang and others, in Landscape and Ecological Engineering, Volume 15 (2019); pp. 289-296. Retrieved from:

  • Fundamentals of Watershed Hydrology/ Pamela J. Edwards and others, in, Journal of Contemporary Water Research and Education, Volume 154 Issue 1 (2015); pp. 3-20. Retrieved from:

  • Hydrological Impacts of Land Use Change and Climate Variability in the Headwater Region of the Heihe River Basin, Northwest China/ Ling Zang and others, in, PLoS One, Volume 11 Issue 6 (2016). Retrieved from:


  • Stormwater Hydrology and Drainage/ by D. J. Stephenson. Chapter 2. Rainfall and Runoff

  • Runoff Processes. International Edition

  • Earth Science and Applications from Space; National imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond (2007). Chapter 11. Water Resources and the Global Hydrologic Cycle

  • Challenges and Opportunities in the Hydrologic Sciences (2012). Chapter 2. The Water Cycle: an agent of Change

  • Thriving on our Changing Planet: A Decadal strategy on Earth Observation from Space (2018). Chapter 6. Global Hydrological Cycles and Water Resources

  • Riverine Ecosystem Management (2018). Chapter 10. River Hydrology, Flow Alteration and Environmental Flow

  • Overland Flow under Rainfall: Some aspects related to Modelling and Conditioning Factors

  • Environmental Biology. 7.1. Water Cycle and Freshwater Supply


Storm Hydrographs and Water Budgets


  • Water Budgets and River Systems. Flashcards Preview

  • 5.3 - The Hydrological Cycle influences Water Budgets and River Systems at a Local Scale

  • Study Rocket. Revision: A Level Geography Edexcel. Storm Hydrographs

  • Study Rocket. Revision: A Level Geography Edexcel. Water Budgets

  • WATER EQ1: What are the Processes Operating within the Hydrological Cycle from Global to Local Scale? (Revision Worksheets)

  • Water Resource Management Exercise Manual/ Mark W. Bowen

  • Quizlet. Water Budgets and River Systems (Water)

  • Tutor2U Geography. Study Notes: Flood Hydrographs Explained

  • Cool-Geography. A Level. The Storm Hydrograph

  • Revise Online. AS A Level Geography Quiz: Storm Hydrographs


  • Water Budgets: Foundations for effective Water Resources and Environmental Management

  • Navigating Ontario’s Future: Water Budget Overview

  • Storm Hydrographs


  • Water Budgets Video

  • Water Budgets: The Hydrologic Cycle and Topographic Maps

  • AS Physical Geography-The Storm Hydrograph

  • The Flood/Storm Hydrograph River Discharge: GCSE A Level Geography

  • A Level Geography: River Hydrographs


  • A Level Geography. River Discharge. Storm Hydrographs

  • A Level Geography. The Water Balance

  • Urban Drainage

  • The Hydrological Cycle - Water Budgets

  • National Institute of Hydrology, India. Hydrology

  • S-Cool A Level Geography. Storm Hydrographs and River Discharge

  • Geography Revision: GCSE, AS and A Level Geography Revision. River Discharge


  • Watershed Hydrology. Second Edition/ By Peter E. Black. Chapter 4. The Biosphere

  • Engineering Hydorlogy. 3E/ By Subramanya. 5.2. Hydrograph (p. 141-142)

  • Water Budgets, Water Quality, and Analysis of Nutrient Loading of the Winter .../ By G. G. Phelps, E. R. German (Page 14)


  • Rainfall–runoff Response, Event-based Runoff Coefficients and Hydrograph Separation/ Theresa Blume, in Journal of Hydrological Sciences, Volume 52 Issue 5 (2007); pp. 843-862. Retrieved from:


  • Cambridge AS Geography Revision: Hydrology and Fluvial Geomorphology- 1.2. Rainfall Discharge Relationships [SLIDES]

  • Hydrological Cycle and Water Budget [SLIDES]


Climatic, Physical and Biotic Factors affecting Drainage Basin Characteristics and Flows


  • Tutor2U Geography. Study Notes: The Drainage Basin System

  • Geography MYP/ GCSE/ DP. Factors affecting River regimes

  • Geography MYP/ GCSE/ DP. The Drainage Basin as an Open System

  • Functioning of Drainage Basins

  • Brain-Scape. Geography- The Water Cycle. Impact of Physical and Human Factors on the Drainage Basin: Flashcards Review

  • Bitesize. Higher. The Global Hydrological Cycle: Factors affecting an Individual Drainage Basin

  • IB Geographypods. 2. Flooding and Flood Mitigation (Place)

  • A level Geography Revision. EDEXCEL. 5.3C. Storm Hydrographs

  • The Nature Education Knowledge Project Library. Rivers and Streams: life in Flowing Water


  • Drainage Basins as Open Systems

  • Internet-Geography. Geotopics- Rivers: Discharge

  • Internet-Geography. Flood Hydographs

  • The Effects of Other Uses of River Basins on Fisheries

  • Water Encyclopedia. Runoff, Factors Affecting

  • Rivers, Wetlands and Floodplains

  • Freshwater Lakes and Rivers


  • Regional Aquatics Monitoring Program (RAMP). Surface Water Hydrology: The River Basin.

  • Link between River Outflow and Coastal Sea Level

  • Study finds Link between River Outflow and Coastal Sea Level

  • Why should we worry about Sea Level Change?

  • Estuaries: Where the River Meets the Sea

  • Coastal Processes—Changes in Sea Level

  • Effect of Climate Change on Coastline Evolution


  • Revise AS Level Geography for Edexcel Specification B


  • AQA/AS/A Level Geography Revision Notes

  • Hydro-geomorphic Effects of Explosive Volcanic Eruptions on Drainage Basins/ Thomas C. Pierson and Jon J. Major

  • The Drainage Basin System

  • Cambridge International AS and A Level Geography. 2nd edition. 1. Hydrological and Fluvial Geomorphology

  • Changes in Sea Level over time influence Coastal landforms

  • Sea Level Rise and its Coastal Impacts/ Anny Cazenave and Gonéri Le Cozannet

  • Past, Present, and Future Sea Level Rise and Effects on Coasts under Changing Global Climate


  • Influence of Basin Characteristics on the Effectiveness and Downstream Reach of Inter-basin Water Transfers: Displacing a Problem / Ryan E. Emanuel and others, in, Environmental Research Letters, Volume 10 (2015).  Retrieved from:

  • Changes in Major Global River Discharges Directed into the Ocean/ Xiaoging Shi and others, in, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Volume 16 Issue 8 (2019); pp. 1469. Retrieved from:

  • Effects of Watershed Topography, Soils, Land Use, and Climate on Base-flow Hydrology in Humid Regions: A Review/ Katie Price, in, Progress in physical Geography, Volume 35 Issue 4 (2011); pp. 465-492. Retrieved from:

  • Drainage Network Position and Historical Connectivity explain Global Patterns in Freshwater Fishes’ Range Size/ Juan Carvajal-Quintero and others, in, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States, Volume 116 Issue 27 (2019); pp. 13434-13439. Retrieved from:

  • Environmental Characteristics and Water Quality of a Drainage Basin Impacted by Human Activities/ Josiani C. Oliveira and others, in. Environmental Management and Sustainable Development, Volume 6 No. 2 (2017); pp. 373-389. Retrieved from:

  • Local-Habitat, Watershed, and Biotic Features Associated with Bull Trout Occurrence in Montana Streams/ Cecil F. Rich and others, in, Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, Volume 132 (2003); pp. 1053–1064. Retrieved from:

  • Abiotic vs. Biotic Factors: Lessons drawn from Rotifers in the Middle Loire, a Meandering River monitored from 1995 to 2002, during Low Flow Periods/ Nicole Laire, in, Hydorbiologia, Volume 546 (2005); pp. 457-472. Retrieved from:

  • Role of Abiotic and Biotic Factors in Structuring the Metazoan Plankton Community in a Lowland River/ Giampaolo Rossetti and others, in, River Research and Application, Volume 25 (2009); pp. 814-835. Retrieved from:

  • Key Factors Influencing Differences in Stream Water Quality across Space/ A. Lintern and others, in, WIREs Water, Volume 5 Issue 1 (2018); pp. 1-31. Retrieved from:

  • The Interactions between Vegetation and Erosion: New Directions for Research at the Interface of Ecology and Geomorphology/ W.R. Osterkamp and others, in, Earth, Surface Processes and Landforms,  Volume 37 (2012); pp. 23–36. Retrieved from:


  • Physical Fundamentals e-book. Chapter 10. Introduction to the Lithosphere: (aa). The Drainage Basin Concept.

  • Cambridge International AS and A Level Geography. Topic 1. Hydrology and fluvial Geomorphology

  • Physical Geology. Chapter 13. Streams and Floods- 13.2. Drainage Basins

  • Water Quality Assessments - A Guide to Use of Biota, Sediments and Water in Environmental Monitoring - Second Edition. Chapter 6. Rivers


  • Sediment Budgets and Routing in Forested Drainage Basins/ By Frederick John Swanson


  • Chapter 14. Lesson 1. Drainage Basins: Definitions and Characteristics

  1. Factors Influencing Drainage Patterns, Drainage Density and their Measurements, including Stream Ordering


  • A Study of Variables Characterizing Drainage Patterns in River Networks/ Ling Zhang and Eric Guilbert, in International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Volume XXXIX-B2 (2012); pp. 29-34. Retrieved from:

  • New Insights into Factors Controlling Drainage Density in Subarctic Landscapes/  Miska Luoto, in, Journal of Artic, Antarctic and Alpine Research, Volume 39 Issue 1 (2007); pp. 117-126. Retrieved from:

  • Morphometry Governs the Dynamics of a Drainage Basin: Analysis and Implications/ Atrayee Biswas and others, in, Hindawi Geography Journal Online, Volume 2014; 14 pages.

  • Implications of Drainage Basin Parameters of a Tropical River Basin in South India/ K.J. Babu and others, in, Applied Water Science, Volume 6 (2016); pp. 67-75. Retrieved from:

  • Different Approaches to Estimation of Drainage Density and Their Effect on the Erosion Potential Method/ Nevena Dragicevic and others, in, Water 2019, Volume 11 Issue 3 (2019); 14 pages. Retrieved from:

  • Drainage Morphology and its influence on Hydrology in an Semi-Arid Region using SRTM Data and GIS/ P.D. Sreedevi and others, in Environmental Earth Science, Volume 70 (2013); pp. 839-848. Retrieved from:


  • Drainage Density and Streamflow / by Charles W. Carlston

  • Topographic Characteristics of Drainage Basins/ by Walter B. Langbein and others

  • Application of Synthetic Unit Hydrograph Methods to construct Storm Hydrographs/ B.F. Sule and S.A. Alabi

  • A look at the Links between Drainage Density and Flood Statistics / B. Pallard , A. Castellarin  and A. Montanari


  • Drainage Pattern and Morphometric Analyses of Drainage Basins [SLIDES]

  • Storm Hydrographs [SLIDES]


  • Tulane University. EENS 111.Physical Geology: Streams and Drainage Systems

  • LearnXtra. Geography Grade 12. Session 5: River Systems


  • The Storm Hydrograph Tutorial and Exam Technique  




Concepts associated with Fluvial Landforms and Processes- Competence and Capacity, Erosion, Transportation, Deposition


  • Fluvial Environment

  • Fluvial Environments

  • Fluvial Environments

  • The Fluvial Landforms and Cycle of erosion

  • River Systems and Fluvial Landforms

  • Fluvial Erosional Processes and Landforms

  • Fluvial Depositional Processes and Landforms

  • Fluvial Erosion

  • (z.) Fluvial Landforms

  • Fluvial Processes and Landforms

  • Fluvial Landforms and Processes


  • HKDSE Geography. M2a: Fluvial Processes


  • The Concept of Transport Capacity in Geomorphology / John Wainwright and others, in, Reviews of Geophysics, Volume 53 Issue 4 (2015); pp. 1155 – 1202. Retrieved from:


  • Lecture #5. Fluvial and Alluvial Fan System [SLIDES]

  • Sedimentary Environment (Fluvial Chanel) [SLIDES]

  • Fluvial Processes [SLIDES]

  • Module 1. The Fluvial Environment [SLIDES]

  • Fluvial Processes and Landforms [SLIDES]

  • River Channels: Processes and Landforms, Flood and Management [SLIDES]


  • Fluvial Landforms and Processes

  • River Process: the Fluvial System and Hydrology

  • Fluvial Processes and Landforms


  • Fluvial Processes and Landforms

  • Geography MYP/ GCSE/ DP. Fluvial Processes: Transportation and Deposition





  • Coastal Landforms

  • Environment Guide. Introduction to the Coastal Environment

  • “UNEP: Wider Caribbean”.

  • Coastal Environment

  • National Geographic Society-Coast

  • Threats to the Coastal Zone

  • Coastal Processes- Changes in Sea Level

  • Effect of Climate Change on Coastline Evolution



  • Coastal Processes & Landforms

  • “Mangroves in Trinidad and Tobago”.

  • Landforms Coasts


  • Chapter 2: Coastal Environments


UNEP. Environmental Problems affecting the Coastal and Marine Environment in the Wider Caribbean Regio


  • UNEP. The Strategy for the Development of the Caribbean Environment Programme

  • UNEP. Regional Overview of Environmental Problems and Priorities Affecting the Coastal and Marine Resources of the Wider Caribbean Region

  • Chapter 2. Policy Responses

  • The coastal environment of Jamaica: problems, protection, management

  • Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) Policy Framework (Draft)


  • Coastal Environment. Topic 2 A-Level Physical Geography [SLIDES]

  • Coastal Environments [SLIDES]




  • Limestone Landscapes

  • Limestone Origins


  • Natural Wonders of the Caribbean (2005) - Karst Landscapes

  • Limestone Landscapes


  • Limestone,needed%20ingredients%20from%20ocean%20water.

  • Rock Cycle: Limestones

  • How is Limestone formed?

  • Origins of Limestones

  • Environmental Hazards of Limestone Mining

  • Environmental Hazards of Limestone Mining

  • Limestone

  • What is Limestone?

  • Limestone Chemical Components


  • Assessment of Environmental Impacts of Limestone Quarrying Operations in Thailand

  • Chapter 5.Limestones


  • Formation of Limestone [SLIDES]         




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