The Caribbean Advanced Proficiency Examination (CAPE) Sociology syllabus comprises two Units each with three compulsory Modules. According to CXC, each Module will require at least 50 hours of teaching and study time.  All Modules are compulsory. The two Units together provide a comprehensive introduction to the field of Caribbean and mainstream Sociology. Units with accompanying Modules and Sub-titles for CAPE Sociology are detailed as follows:


UNIT 1. The Sociological Perspective


Module 1 – Sociological Concepts, Perspectives and Methods

Module 2 – Social Institutions: Family, Religion, Education

Module 3 – Social Stratification


UNIT 2. Development and Social Change


Module 1 – Population and Development

Module 2 – Crime and Deviance

Module 3 – Caribbean Social Issues: Poverty, Health and Environment


The syllabus generally aims to:

  • Equip students with the sociological concepts, theories/perspectives and methods to better understand human society;
  • Develop an awareness of the cultural heritage and identity of Caribbean people;
  • Develop an appreciation of family and kinship values, community cohesion, moral and social responsibility and commitment to the Caribbean;
  • Develop an understanding of Caribbean social issues; S CXC A27/U2/13 2, and
  • Develop an appreciation of the dynamics of Caribbean society, focusing on socio-cultural continuity and change, diversity and similarity, consensus and conflict


NOTE:-Despite evidence of socio-economic transformation and the influence of globalisation, the Caribbean region still maintains a distinct identity. In this regard, pursuance of the subject of sociology will equip students with the necessary knowledge, orientation and skills for understanding society in general, drawing conclusions and making recommendations regarding the socio-scientific, economic and political development of Caribbean Societies in particular.









Development of Sociology as a Discipline


  • Lecture 1. Origin of Sociology as a Discipline

  • Defining a Discipline: Sociology and its Philosophical Problems, from its Classics to 1945/  Stephen P. Turner

  • Sociological Perspectives on Socialization


  • Introduction to Sociology. 2e

  • Introduction to Sociology. 1st Canadian Edition. Chapter 1. An Introduction to Sociology

  • Boundless Sociology. The History of Sociology

  • Herbert Spencer. The Principles of Sociology, Vol. 1, [1898]

  • Sociology Course Reader. Sociology: Discipline and Discourse/ Piet Strydom

  • Sociology as a Discipline/ Kalema Rogers

Sociology. Chapter 2.1. Sociology as a Science

  • Fundamentals of Sociology DSOC 101

  • Sociology for Dummies

  • Foundations of Sociology. Towards a better Understanding of the Human World/ Richard Jenkins


  • Sociology: A Brief Introduction. 10th edition/ Richard T. Schaefer

  • Boundless Sociology. Chapter: Culture- The Symbolic Nature of Culture,either%20formal%20or%20informal%20control.

  • Boundless Sociology. Chapter: Types of Social Groups


The Impossibility of Sociology as a Science: Arguments from within the Discipline/ Jan Balon and John Holmwood, in, Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, Volume 49 Issue 3 (2019); pp. 334-347. Retrieved from:


  • What is Sociology? Crash Course Sociology #1

  • What Is Sociology? - Definition, Themes & Careers in Sociology

  • What is Sociology?

  • An introduction to the Discipline of Sociology

  • Sociology Lesson 1. Introduction to Sociology

  • Founding Fathers of Sociology


  • The Emergence and Development of Sociology of-sociology-2874-words/8484

  • The History of Sociology Is Rooted in Ancient Times

  • 7 Main Characteristics of Sociology – Discussed!

  • UK Essays. The Development of Sociology as a Discipline


  • CliffNotes Sociology. Three Major Perspectives in Sociology

  • What is Sociology?

  • CliffNotes Sociology. The Founders of Sociology


The Development of Sociology in the Caribbean


  • CAPE Sociology


  • Caribbean Society

  • History: Sociology and the Caribbean


  • Sociological Models of Caribbean Society/ Igol L. Allen


  • Caribbean examinations Council. Readings in Sociology: Module 1 Text- Sociology 2 [SLIDES]

  • CAPE Sociology: Marxism and the Caribbean [SLIDES]



Social order (structure, function, power); social change; status and roles; values, norms and sanctions; social group (primary and secondary, in-group and out-group); socialisation (types and agents - school, family, peer group, mass media, religion); culture (elements and characteristics).


  • What is Social Order in Sociology?

  • Social change

  • Introduction to Sociology. Module 4: Socialization- Roles and the Presentation of Self


  • Social order in Sociology: Its reality and elusiveness 

  • Basic Concepts from Sociology to Anthropology. Tools to think with

  • Unit 2. Basic Concepts in Sociology

  • The importance of the Socialization Process for the Integration of the Child in the Society

  • Socialization

  • Chapter 5. Socialising the Individual


  • Social Structure [SLIDES]

  • Models of Caribbean Societies [SLIDES]


  • Society and Social Interaction Part 1

  • Society, Culture and Social Interaction

  • Sociology Lesson 4 - Culture 

  • Culture

  • What is Culture?

  • Society and Social Interaction – Part 2

  • Introduction to Sociological Concepts: Status and Roles

  • Values, Norms and Sanctions

  • Symbols, Values and Norms: Crash Course Sociology # 10

  • What is Social Group? Explain Social Group; Define Social Group; Meaning of Social Group

  • Characteristics of Social Groups

  • Sociology Part 6: Social Groups

  • Introduction to Sociology 

  • Culture, Race, Class in the Commonwealth Caribbean/ M.G. Smith

  • Introduction to Sociology. Module 5. Society and Groups: Fundamentals of Society

  • Introduction to Sociology. Chapter: Agents of Socialization

  • Introduction to Sociology. Chapter: The Role of Socialization

  • Culture

  • Sociology. Chapter 3.2. Elements of Culture

  • Introduction to Sociology

  • Sociology (Barkan). Chapter 2: Culture and Society. 2.2. Culture and the Sociological Perspective

  • Introduction to Sociology. 1st Canadian Edition. Chapter 5. Socialization


  • Characteristics of Culture

  • The Caribbean as a Cultural Space 

  • What is Culture in Sociology?

  • Overview of Culture

  • Elements of Culture: Explanation of the Major Elements That Define Culture

  • Status and Role

  • Define and Differentiate between Status and Role

  • Role: The Meaning and Characteristics of Role in Sociology

  • What are Social Groups and Social Networks?

  • Socialisation: the Meaning, Features, Types, Stages and Importance


  • CliffNotes. Culture and Society defined

  • SparkNotes. Society and Culture- Status and Roles,occupies%20in%20a%20particular%20setting.&text=A%20role%20is%20the%20set,characteristics%20attached%20to%20a%20status.

  • Elements of Culture: Values and Beliefs

  • Types of Social Groups: Primary, Secondary and Reference Groups

  • CliffNotes Sociology. Social Groups

  • Social Group






  • The Functionalist Perspective – Class Notes for A Level Sociology (Year 2)

  • Sociological Perspectives- Key Concepts

  • Functionalism: An Introduction'structural%2Dconsensus%20theory'.&text=The%20'consensus%20bit'%20means%20that,together%20to%20achieve%20shared%20goals.

  • Concepts of Functionalism

  • Cochise Sociology: Introduction to Sociology. Chapter: the Functionalist Perspective


  • Functionalism

  • Emile Durkheim's Theories: Functionalism, Anomie and Division of Labor

  • Structural Functionalism/ Consensus Theory

  • Sociological Theory: Consensus vs Conflict Theories (Sociology Theory and Methods)

  • Boundless Sociology. Chapter: Theoretical Perspectives in Sociology


  • Sociology Study Notes. Consensus Theories-Functionalism




  • Conflict Theory

  • Understanding Conflict and War: Vol. 3: Conflict in Perspective

  • Reading: Conflict Theory and Society

  • Understanding Conflict Theory


  • Karl Marx and Conflict Theory: Crash Course Sociology #6

  • Conflict Theory

  • Sociological Paradigm #2: Conflict Theory

  • Sociology Boundless. Chapter 1: Sociology- 1.3 C. The Conflict Perspective


  • Conflict and Critical Theories

  • Maxism: Structural Conflict Theory




  • Concise Sociology. Chapter: The Interactionist Perspective

  • Symbolic Interactionism: The Basics/ Charles Quist-Adade. (Vernon Press, 2018)

  • Handbook of Sociological Theory/ edited by Jonathan H. Turner (Springer: 2001)



Symbolic Interaction Theory: History, Development and Examples

  • Sociological Theory: Interactionism

  • Interactionist Perspective


  • Chapter 7. Interactionism in Sociology: Definition & Examples


  • Symbolic Interaction Theory

  • Basic Concepts of Symbolic Interactionism




  • Introduction to Sociology. Chapter: The Feminist Perspective

  • Alamo Sociology. Module 1. Foundations of Sociology: Chapter- Reading: Feminist Theory

  • Sociology Boundless. Chapter 1: Sociology- 1.3 E. The Feminist Perspective

  • History and Theory of Feminism


  • Feminism Types and Definitions: Liberal, Socialist, Culture & Radical

  • Feminist Sociological Theory


  • Feminist Theory in Sociology

  • Feminist Theory: an Overview


  • Feminist Theory: A Summary for A-Level Sociology


  • Sociology: The Feminist Perspective




Caribbean Socio-cultural Diversity: Continuity and Change, Conflict and Assimilation, Creole and Plural Societies


  • Culture of the Caribbean

  • Creolization, Caribbean

  • Theoretical Perspectives on the Stasis of Class Relations in the Caribbean: the Belize Case Study/ Joseph Iyo & Michael Rosberg

  • Radical Caribbean Social Thought: Race, Class Identity and the Postcolonial Nation

  • The Utility of Pluralism: M.G. Smith and Plural Theory

  • Caribbean Culture too Diverse to be labelled

  • Caribbean Crucible: History, Culture, and Globalization

  • Ethnic and Racial Diversity in the Caribbean


  • The Cultural Diversity of the Caribbean

  • Cultural Assimilation

  • Cultural Identity versus Cultural Assimilation and the work of SISTREN Theatre Collective in Context

  • Processes of Change

  • East Indians in Trinidad

  • Assimilation Models, Old and New: Explaining a Long-Term Process

  • Race, Culture and Survival in the Greater Caribbean: a lesson for us all


  • Theories of Caribbean Society/ Amanda McDonald

  • Caribbean Studies- Caribbean Society and Culture [SLIDES]

  • Caribbean Social Structure: Plural Societies [SLIDES]


  • Reconsidering Creolization and Creole Societies


Creolization in the Caribbean

  • Caribbean Cultural Creolization

  • Is a Creole Bacchanal

  • What’s the Use of Culture?


  • Theorizing World Culture through the New World: East Indians and Creolization

  • Creole Hegemony in Caribbean Societies: The Case of Suriname

  • Creole on the Trinidadian ground: Revisiting the Concept

  • Callaloo or Pelau? Food, Identity and Politics in Trinidad and Tobago


  • Ethnicity and Identity in the Caribbean: Decentering a Myth

  • Social Continuity in the Caribbean Past: A Maison-Perspective on Cultural Continuity

  • Continuity and Change in the Evolution of Religion and Political Organization on Pre-Columbian Puerto Rico

  • Caribbean Families, Social Capital and Young People’s Diasporic Identities

  • Culture and Continuity: Causal Structures in Socio-Cultural Persistence

  • Continuity, Change and the Circulation of Social Practices

  • Multiculturalism and the Challenge of Managing Diversity in Trinidad and Tobago

  • Trini to de Bone: The Impact of Migration on the Cultural Identities of Trinidadian Immigrants in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

  • The Impact of Race, Class and Gender on Second-Generation Caribbean Immigrants’ Assimilation Patterns into the United States


  • Assimilation and Pluralism: From Immigrants to White Ethnics

  • Regional Cultural Policy of the Caribbean Community

  • Popular Culture, National Identity and Race in the Caribbean

  • The Clash of Cultures in Post creole Trinidad and Tobago

  • Culture and Development: World Heritage in the Caribbean


  • Conviviality at the Crossroads: The Poetics and Politics of Everyday Encounters. Chapter 10. Creolisation as a Recipe for Conviviality/ Thomas Hyland Erickson; pp. 43-63.


  • Caribbean Creolization: Reflections on the Cultural Dynamics of Language, Literature, and Identity

  • Framing Difference: Migration and Creolization in the French Caribbean

  • Education and Society in the Creole Caribbean

  • Caribbean Life in New York City: Sociocultural Dimensions


  • Cultural Diversity in the Caribbean (Article)


  • Tri-dimensional Acculturation and Adaptation among Jamaican Adolescent-Mother Dyads in the United States/ Gail M. Ferguson and others, in, Child Development, Volume 83 Issue 5 (2012); pp. 1486-1493. Retrieved from:

  • Creolization as Model for Tradition in Plural Societies: the Caribbean Experience/ Effumbe Kachua, in, European Journal of Literature, Language and Linguistics Studies, Volume 2 Issue 4 (2018); pp. 201-209. Retrieved from:

  • The Impact of Identity, Ethnicity and Class on Guyana’s Strategic Culture/ George K. Danns, in, American International Journal of Contemporary Research, Volume 14 Issue 11 (2014); pp. 65-77. Retrieved from:


Caribbean Popular Culture, for example, Music, Dance, Art, Theatre or Folklore (Historical Background and Social Context)


  • Feteing as Cultural Resistance? The Soca Posse in the Caribbean Diaspora

  • Contesting the Past: Narratives of Trinidad and Tobago History

  • Carnival, Memory and Identity

  • Good Liming in Trinidad: The Art of Doing Something

  • Steel Pan's Heart: How a Drum made in tiny Island Nation brings World Cultures together in the midst of Struggle

  • The Question of Multiculturalism in the Arts in the Postcolonial Nation-State of Trinidad and Tobago;view=fulltext

  • Narratives of Resistance in Trinidad’s Calypso and Soca Music

  • The Invention of Trinidad Carnival: The New World Gleichschaltung

  • Music and the rise of Caribbean Nationalism: The Jamaican Case

  • Sound Bang- Race, Culture and the ‘Big Speaker Sound” Trinidad 1950-1990

  • Dancehall History: Clevie Brown Interview

  • Summary Notes: The Evolution of Jamaican Music and Music of the Spanish Speaking Caribbean

  • Giv Dem Di Dance: An Investigation of Jamaican Culture through the Music and Dance of the Dancehalls

  • Calypso in the UK

  • Oil, Race and Calypso

  • In the Battle of Emergent Independence: Calypsos of Decolonization


  • Caribbean Popular Culture: Everyday Lives, Racial Politics and Transnational Movements/ Review Essay by Emiel Martens, in, European Review of Latin American and Caribbean Studies, Issue 102 (2016); pp. 101-108. Retrieved from:




Sociology as a Science


  • Is Sociology a Science?

  • Sociology and the Scientific Method: Crash Course Sociology #3


  • Sociology: Is Sociology a Branch of Science-Answered!,Hence%20Sociology%20is%20a%20science.

  • Is Sociology a Science?

  • Understanding of If Sociology Is Science Sociology Essay

  • Sociology as Science



  • The Impossibility of Sociology as a Science; Arguments from Within the Discipline/ Jan Balon and John Holmwood, in, Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, Volume 49 Issue 3 (2019); pp. 334-347. Retrieved from:


  • Is Sociology a Science?



Ethical Issues in Research


  • Ethical Issues in Sociological Research,results%20when%20consent%20had%20beenwithdrawn.

  • Ethical Considerations in Sociological Research

  • Factors Affecting Choice of Research Methods

  • Ethical Issues in Research


  • Sociology. Chapter 2.4. Ethical Issues in Sociological Research


  • Ethics 4- What Ethical Issues tend to arise in Research?

  • What is Research Ethics?

  • Research Ethics- Ethical Issues (Part 1of 3)

  • Research Ethics- Ethical Principles (Part 2 of 3)

  • Research Ethics- Ethical Practice (Part 3 of 3)

  • Principles and Guidelines for Ethical Research and Evaluation in Development


  • CliffNotes. Ethics in Sociological Research


  • AS Sociology: Ethical Factors influencing Choice of Methods [SLIDES]




  • Introduction to Research Methods

  • Research Methods- Introduction

  • What is Research?

  • Why Do Research?

  • Method and Methodology

  • Introduction to Research Methods and Methodology

  • Research Methodology: (Define Purpose, Objectives and Process)

  • Chapter 3.6. Benefits and Beneficiaries of Research


  • Module 9. Introduction to Research


  • Research Methodology: a Step-by-Step Guide for Beginners. 3rd edition/ Ranjit Kumar (Sage, 2011)

  • Research Methods Handbook: Introductory Guide to Research Methods for Social Research/  Stuart MacDonald and Nicola Headlam (CLES,?)

  • Social Sciences Research: Principles, Methods and Practices/ Anol Bhattacherjee (Published under the Creative Commons Attribution, 2012)


Positivism and Interpretivism


  • A Level Sociology: Positivist V interpretivist in Sociology Exams   

  • Research Methods: Postivisim (Sociology Theory & Methods)

  • Research Methods: Interpretivism (Sociology Theory & Methods)

  • Positivism and Interpretivism


  • Positivism and Interpretivism in Social Research – Revise Sociology

  • Sociology Revision- Methodology, Positivism and Interpretivism


  • Sociology Factsheet: Positivism –v-Interpretivism

  • Introduction to Positivism, Interpretivism and Critical Theory

  • The Relationship between Positivism, Interpretivism and Sociological Research Methods

  • Chapter 4. Research Methodology and Research Design

  • Chapter 4. Research Methodology and Design

  • Interpretivism and Positivism (Ontological and Epistemological Perspectives)


  • Research Methods for the Social Sciences. Chapter 12. Interpretive Research


Quantitative, Qualitative and Triangulation


  • Research Methods in Sociology- An Introduction

  • Definition of Quantitative in Sociology

  • Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches in Research


  • Triangulation

  • Triangulation in Qualitative Research

  • Sociology: Types of Research in Sociology

  • Sociological Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Methods

  • An Overview of Qualitative Research Methods

  • Data Collection Methods

  • Data Collection Methods: Some Tips and Comparisons


  • Quantitative vs Qualitative Research


  • Quantitative vs Qualitative Data

  • The Differences between Quantitative vs Qualitative Research

  • Types of Qualitative Research

  • Qualitative and Quantitative Research: An Introduction

  • What is Triangulation in Qualitative Research?

  • What is Triangulation (Qualitative Research)?

  • Mixed Methods Research: The Basics

  • Theory and Methods: Quantitative and Qualitative Methods: A Level Sociology

  • Sociology Research Methods: Crash Course Sociology #4

  • Qualitative and Quantitative Method Sociology Optional UPSC CSE


  • Quantitative and Qualitative Research Methods in Sociology[amir_marvasti]_qualitative_research_in_sociology__bokos-z1_.pdf

  • Qualitative Research in Sociology: An Introduction/ Amir B. Marvasti (Sage Publications, 2004)[amir_marvasti]_qualitative_research_in_sociology__bokos-z1_.pdf

  • Introduction to Sociology. Chapter: Research Methods

  • Principles of Sociological Inquiry: Qualitative and Quantitative Methods/ Amy Blackstone (Saylor Foundation, 2012)

  • An Introduction to Triangulation (UN/AIDS,?)

  • Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Method Approaches. 4th Edition/ John W. Creswell (Sage, 2014)

  • The Sage Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research Methods: Volumes 1&2 / Lisa Givens (Editor). (Sage, 2008)


  • What is Qualitative Research? An Introduction to the Field

  • Qualitative Research Methodology in Social Sciences and Related Subjects

  • Qualitative Research: An Introduction-Purposes, Methodology, Criteria for Judgment, and a Rationale for Mixed Methodology

  • Triangulation in Social Research: Qualitative and Quantitative Research methods can really be mixed


  • Triangulation; an Overview

  • The use of Triangulation in Social Sciences Research: Can Qualitative and Quantitative Methods be combined?

  • Denzin’s Paradigm Shift: Revisiting Triangulation in Qualitative Research

  • Mixing Qualitative and Quantitative Methods: Triangulation in Action

  • Introduction to Social Science Methods: An Overview of Quantitative and Qualitative Methods


  • Step-by-Step Guide to Critiquing research. Part 1. Quantitative Research


Surveys and Sampling Methods


  • Surveys

  • Social Surveys: Questionnaires, interviews and Telephone Polls

  • Social Surveys – An Introduction to Structured Questionnaires and Structured Interviews

  • What is a Survey? Definition, Templates, Methods, Characteristics and Examples

  • Research Methods and Statistics: Social Survey

  • Important Methods and Techniques of Sociology

  • Sampling

  • The Different Types of Sampling Designs in Sociology

  • Sampling Methods

  • Sampling Methods

  • Sampling Techniques in Social Research

  • Sampling Methods in Sociology- Random (Probability) Sampling

  • Types of Sampling; Sampling Methods with Examples


  • Introduction to Sociology. 1st Canadian Edition. Chapter2. Sociological Research

  • Sociology. Module 1: Foundations of Sociology- Chapter. Reading: Surveys

  • Principles of Sociological Inquiry: Qualitative and Quantitative Methods (Blackstone). Chapter 8.2: Pros and Cons of Survey Research

  • Research Methods for Social Sciences. Chapter 8. Sampling


  • Chapter 2. Sociological Research Methods

  • Sampling in Research

  • “A” Level Sociology Teaching Notes for Students. Theory and Methods: Sampling Techniques

  • Sociological Inquiry Principles: Qualitative and Quantitative Methods. Chapter7. Sampling

  • Chapter 3. Data Sources, Sampling Design, Methods and Methodological Issues


  • Encyclopedia of Survey Research Methods: Non-Probability Sampling

  • Survey-based Studies


  • Sociological Research Methods [SLIDES]

  • Sociology Unit 1. Internal Assessment Sample [SLIDES]


  • What is Survey Research? Definition, Methods, Types

  • Surveys and Samples

  • Probability and Non-Probability Sampling in Research Methods

  • Sampling in Sociology

  • Sampling 01: Introduction

  • Sampling 02: Simple Random Sampling

  • Sampling 03: Stratified Random Sampling

  • Sampling 04: Cluster Sampling

  • Sampling 05: Systematic Sampling

  • Types of Sampling Methods (4.1)

  • Types of Survey Sampling Techniques

  • Sample Size Calculation

  • Introduction to stratified, Cluster, systematic, and Convenience Sampling

  • Techniques for Random Sampling and Avoiding Bias

  • Surveys


  • Surveys as a Qualitative Research Method

  • Types of Surveys


  • Sampling Techniques: Simple Random Sampling

  • Student resource 3: Sampling

  • Sampling Techniques in Sociological Research


Document Studies


  • What is Documentary Research? Examples, Methodology, Advantages and Disadvantages

  • Example Answer for Question 6 Paper 1: A Level Sociology, June 2017 (AQA). [“ By documents, Sociologists are referring……….”],parish%20records%20or%20the%20census.

  • Tag: Documents- Outline and Explain Two Practical Problems of Using Documents in social Research

  • Secondary Qualitative Data in Sociology

  • Public and Historical Documents

  • Personal Documents

  • The Strengths and Limitations of Secondary Data

  • Integrated Social Sciences Program: Primary and Secondary Sources


  • Sociology as Research Methods- Documents

  • Sociology (AS) Research Methods- Documents


  • A Level Sociology. Module 1: Theory and Methods. Unit M5: Secondary Methods

  • Document Analysis as a Qualitative Research Method

  • Sociological Methods: The Different Quantitative and Qualitative Methods and Sources of Data, including Questionnaires, Interviews, Observation Techniques and Experiments, and Documents and Official statistics. [Part 2]

  • Documentary Research Method: New Dimensions

  • ‘Research Data’ in Social Science Methods'Research_Data'_in_Social_Science_Methods

  • Data Collection: Primary versus Secondary

  • Secondary Analysis of Qualitative Data: a Valuable Method for Exploring Sensitive Issues with an Elusive Population?

  • Qualitative Methods: 5. Documents



  • Documentary Research in Education, History and the Social Sciences/ Gary McCulloch (Routledge-Falmer, 2004)


Observation (Participant and Non-participant)


  • Observational Research: What is Observational Research?,phenomena%20in%20their%20natural%20setting.

  • Observation: Types, Merits and Limitations- Social Research

  • Observational Studies

  • What is Participant Observation Research?,a%20social%20phenomenon%20or%20problem.&text=Sometimes%2C%20though%20not%20always%2C%20the,the%20sociologist%20is%20studying%20them.

  • Participant Observation in Social Research

  • Participant Observation: a Guide for Educators and Social Practitioners

  • Participant Observation and Non- Participant Observation

  • Advantages and Dis-advantages of Participant Observation

  • Advantages and Dis-advantages of Non-Participant Observation

  • Participant Observation

  • The Utility of Participant Observation in Applied Sociological Research

  • Non-Participant Observation,Non%2DParticipant%20Observation,observing%20participants%20without%20actively%20participating.&text=The%20observer%20effect%3A%20the%20presence,but%20remains%20a%20potential%20issue.

  • Non-Participant Observation

  • Using Participant or Non-Participant Observation to Explain Information Behaviour

  • You’re Being Watched. Observation Methods in Social Research and Evaluation


  • Participant Observation: Definition and Examples


  • Sociology. Module 1. Foundations of Sociology. Chapter: Research Methods- Reading: Field Research

  • Chapter 5. Research. Non-Participant Approach: Non-Participant Observation


  • Sociology: Participant and Non-Participant Observation

  • Non-Participant Observations

  • Participant Observation and Non- Participant Observation


  • Observation

  • Module 2. Participant Observation

  • Conducting Observational Research

  • Chapter 12. Collecting Data through Observation

  • Sociology: Methodology of Research in Sociology- Observation


Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Studies


  • Cross-sectional versus Longitudinal Studies

  • Cross-sectional Study versus Longitudinal Study

  • How Does the Cross-Sectional Research Method Work?,a%20certain%20point%20in%20time.

  • What is a Cross-sectional Study? Definition with Examples

  • What is a Cross-sectional Study?

  • Cross-sectional Surveys

  • Longitudinal/ Cohort and Case-control Studies

  • What is a Longitudinal Study? Definition and Explanation

  • Longitudinal Studies

  • The Pros and Cons of Longitudinal Research

  • Examples of Longitudinal Studies


  • CliffNotes. Sociological Research: Designs, Methods


  • Cross-sectional versus Longitudinal Survey Research: Concepts, Findings and Guidelines

  • Explaining Discrepancies between Longitudinal and Cross-sectional Models

  • Research Methodology Topics: Cross-sectional Studies

  • Methodology Series Module 3: Cross-sectional Studies

  • Chapter 8. Selecting a Study Design

  • Design and Analysis Methods for Longitudinal Research

  • Longitudinal Research and the Analysis of Social Change



  • Cross-Sectional Study: Definition, Advantages, Disadvantages and Example

  • Cross-sectional Research: Definition & Examples

  • Study Design Part 3: Cross-sectional Studies

  • Cross-sectional Studies

  • Longitudinal Study

  • What is Longitudinal Study? What does Longitudinal Study mean? What does Longitudinal Study mean?

  • Types of Longitudinal Studies

  • Research Design (Clip 6). Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Studies

  • Questionnaire design: Surveys- Cross-sectional vs Longitudinal

  • Cross-sectional vs Longitudinal Research Designs



  • Research Methodology Topics: Cross-sectional Studies/ Juliana Zangirolami-Raimundo and othes, in, Journal of Human Growth and Development, Volume 28 Issue 3 (2018). Retrieved from:

  • Study Design III: Cross-sectional Studies/ Kate Ann Levin, in, Evidence Based Dentistry, Volume 7 Issue 1 (2006); pp. 24-25. Retrieved from:


  • Cross-sectional Studies: What are they good for?/ Ulrik. S. Kesmodel, In,   ACTA Methodology in Clinical Epidemiological Research in Obstetrics and Gynaecology Scandinavia, Volume 97 Issue 4 (2018); pp. 388-393. Retrieved from:




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